Program evaluation model
Develop goals and objectives
Program goals and objectives should be based on the results of needs assessments, and they should reflect the statement of philosophy. Goals are General statements of intent or purpose which reflect recognize needs. Objectives are more specific and measurable statements of the expected outcomes of the vocational program. The program of jective provide the framework for, and determined to a large extent, the evaluation that is conducted. Therefore, time and energy spent in their development is very important.
State Criterion questions
The development of Criterion questions for each of ejected requires a good deal of time and should involved several persons who are keenly interested in the program. From the list of the Criterion questions, one can determine the appropriate information needed for the evaluation effort,
A Criterion question is one which states the objective in such a way that an answer is called for that would help to measure the attainment of the objective. For example, given the program objective, " to keep parents informed about the schools vocational offering," and appropriate Criterion question would be," to what extent are parents familiar with the school's present offerings?" to collect data that would help answer this Criterion question, parents might be asked one or more questions designed to elicit information concerning their understanding of the vocational offering. These questions might be presented on a parental parental form.
The task is to formulate questions in such a manner that they may be answered in varying degrees from very positive to very negative. It may not be necessary to develop more than one question for an objective that is narrow and specific, such as " 2% instruction that prepare students to obtain jobs as clerical workers." however, a more General objective might require several questions relating to it. For example, the program of jective, " to prepare students for entry-level put an advancement in positions satisfying to the students," would require Criterion questions such as:
- How many students leaving the vocational program obtain entry level employment?
- How many former students are able to make reasonable advancement in their positions?
- How satisfied are the former students with their employment situation?
It is usually necessary to collect data about both the process and the product of a program. Process evaluation deals with instructional processes and procedures, facility and equipment adequacy, and many other ways and means that may influence student outcomes.
Product evaluation measures the effects of the vocational program on its product- the students. For example, the student maybe question during and / or after his / her school experience regarding the value of that experience. Employers can also provide valuable feedback to the school about the adequacy of the vocational programs in which former students receive their training.
Both process and fraud evaluations are valuable. However, the emphasis of most locally directed program evaluation should be on product evaluation. Outcomes of our programs are far more important than the processes used to obtain them.
Three General rays of data are usually collected when conducting a comprehensive local vocational education program evaluation. These include: 1) demographic data - background information about the students, teachers, and the school; 2) process data - information about the facilities, and instructional processes and procedures used; and 3) product data information about the students themselves.
The types of background data which can usually be obtained by searching existing records are as follows:
- Student demographic data, including grade point average, courses taken, attendance, address, aptitude and intelligence test scores, and placement records.
- Demographic data, including years of experience, educational preparation, and field experience.
- School demographic data, including enrollment in classes, average daily attendance, and programs offered.
Several types of processed data can be obtained simply by studying the facilities and other records available. Examples of the process areas commonly include:
- The teaching-learning
- Curriculum-course of study
- Learning resources available
- Supplies and equipment available
- Instructional space and laboratory facilities
Most State Departments of education and most accrediting associations have instruments available which can be used as is or adapted for this purpose.
Product data is normally gathered from one or two sources. Most common, and perhaps the most valuable, is data from a student follow-up study. Former students are in a unique position to comment on how well their high school or post-secondary voce technical education courses prepared them to enter and advance in the world of work. To get an accurate and complete picture of the purpose of program evaluation, studies should be reviewed which were conducted on students approximately 1 year and 3 years after their departure from the program.
The second most common gathering product data is to serve a employers of former students. Employers who have hired one or more students who have recently left your vocational program are in a unique position to comment on the strengths and weaknesses of the former students vocational training. They can provide you with important insights into the effectiveness of your vocational program. The procedures for conducting an employer follow-up study or surveys are very similar to those for student follow-up study.
There are some additional data sources which should be used when evaluating a vocational program. These include Community survey reports, supervisory report, and / or reports by crediting agencies. Ideally, vocational programs are planned in response to specific data gathered via a community survey concerning the vocational needs of the community. If such a survey has been conducted recently in your community, some of the data contained in the survey report may be helpful to you and determining how will your present program satisfies the needs established by that report.
Regional accrediting agencies usually conduct process-oriented Ave pictures of each College in secondary school in their regions. Each institution must undergo such an evaluation every 10 years to retain its in crediton. As part of this evaluation process, the school staff must conduct a complete self evaluation which is compiled into a printed document.
The visiting committee for the accrediting agency then reviews this stock, conducts observations and interviews at the school, if repairs and evaluation report. If such an accreditation evaluation has been conducted at your school recently, these documents should be available and should contain valuable data concerning the goals, directive, inadequacy of your program.
Finally, state supervisors generally make it a point to visit each vocational program in their states on an annual or semi-annual basis these visits are documented in formal or informal reports which are another excellent source of evaluation data. Some states have highly structured mechanisms for evaluating their vocational education programs. They often use a process similar to that used by the regional accreditation agencies.
Students, teachers, counselor, administrator, lay person, and state review team's work together to evaluate the existing programs into identifying needed improvements. This evaluation process is detailed reports which may be of assistance to you in planning and conducting your evaluation. Similar programs evaluation procedures and instruments can be obtained from the division of evaluation of most States Department of Education.
Valuation data normally would be analyzed using simple, descriptive statistical techniques such as the computation of frequencies, percents, means, and medians. In all cases, the analysis of data should be appropriate to the data collected. If more sophisticated statistical treatments are desired, most teachers would be well advised assault with a statistical expert. Regardless of the analysis treatment used, it is extremely important that the report be written and Illustrated with bar graphs, pie graphs, etc., so that all concern can understand the findings.
As a teacher and as an evaluator, it is your responsibility to carefully review the data and help make those recommendations or program Improvement suggested by the data. The staff, students, advisory committees should be asked to review the data and help determine the recommendations.
The decision making process is an important one. The teacher has the responsibility to disseminate, as appropriate, the findings and recommendations to administrators and / or governing bodies. One or more written reports of the study should be prepared and distributed. The teacher should assume leadership for making program changes that he or she can easily make to improve the vocational program. Recommendations that involve others. Cost.. e money etc., will of course, need administrative and / or Board of Education approval. Even in these circumstances, however, the teacher has a leadership responsibilities to request the funds or policy changes needed so as to offer and improved vocational education program to his or her students.
Decisions also need to be made concerning future evaluation needs. Program evaluation, when most effectively carried out, is a continuing process.
In planning to evaluate your educational program, you should keep in mind the following key points.
Evaluation is a continuous process. It is not something to be done once every other year. It must be done on a continual basis.
Evaluation requires commitment. Success in evaluation requires that time,, money and moral support be present for those charged with planning and conducting the effort.
Evaluate should be product oriented. The emphasis in product-oriented e-value is on product outcomes rather than the ways and means(processes).
Evaluation should be done in terms of the objectives for the vocational education program. The emphasis should be on determining the extent to which objectives are being met.
Evaluation should involve both those responsible for the program and those affected by it. Persons responsible for, and affected by, programs are the ones responsible for implementing any changes suggested as result of an evaluation.
Evaluation procedures and techniques should be comprehensible to the public. The American educational system developed in an atmosphere of public interest and concern. Lay persons have had a large part in this development, an educator should make certain that the citizens they serve can comprehend what they are doing, and why they are doing it, in regard to program evaluation.