Making Curriculum Content Decisions
The true decision-maker depends upon the level at which the problem has occurred.
Decision-makers can be to two groups.
Policy decision makers: Revolve around problem situations concerning organizational goals and objectives (i.e., board of Trustees, board of directors). Should include input from others such as parents, student, voters, civic leaders, and business/ industry leaders.
Operational decision maker: Responsibility for decisions rest with administrators and instructors wrath Yogen ization, they also require input from students, other instructors, etc.
The biggest problem with making curriculum decision, is that decisions made by curriculum planners are futuristic. In other words, the true impact of the decisions may not be felt until the next year, for 10 years, or maybe even 20 years.
Critical factors affecting decision making include:
- Economic situation of society
- Changes in technology that influenced labor market needs
- Priorities of local communities
- All these factors associated with curriculum development
Philosophical differences in decision-making strategies
Ideology versus Power orientation: The ideal oh just brings to the decision-making and buy internalize concept of what the organization should be; if this person is at the extreme point in terms of ideology, this person is unable to compromise on any decision to be made. A decision maker more intent on power is versatile. This person is able to work with any organization or individual, is less concerned about the program, and is more concerned about staying in power.
Emotionality versus objectivity orientation: The biggest concern with emotionality stems from situations where decision-makers are influenced by deep, defensive needs (the fear of unpleasant facts) they can block out or distort information being received. This not only applies to decision-makers but individual supplying them with information. If a proposal under consideration will adversely affect the vocational program the teacher may be reluctant to argue strongly against the proposal for fear of losing several excellent training centers.
Creativity versus comments sense: Creative individuals may not possess the ability to perceive practical outcomes from their Creative Solutions. Others with Commons mixed with created will add fresh alternatives for discussion that ultimately will result in better decisions.
Action orientation versus contemplation: Decision-makers can third degree of action. We're at 7 to visuals form judgments early and will want to act immediately, others will want to think about a decision for an extended. of time. For this reason many organizations do not act on policy matters at the same meeting were a new policies introduced.
MBO - management by objectives: Process were administrators and teachers jointly identify common the organization and Define each person's role in helping to fulfill those goals.
1. Find the objective;
2. Setting the objective;
3. Validating the objective;
5. Contorting and Reporting status of the objective.
- Everyone knows their jobs
- Variety of people giving input
- cost effective
Management by Objectives (MBO) is a personnel management technique where managers and employees work together to set, record and monitor goals for a specific period of time. Organizational goals and planning flow top-down through the organization and are translated into personal goals for organizational members. The technique was first championed by management expert Peter Drucker and became commonly used in the 1960s.
The core concept of MBO is planning, which means that an organization and its members are not merely reacting to events and problems but are instead being proactive. MBO requires that employees set measurable personal goals based upon the organizational goals. For example, a goal for a civil engineer may be to complete the infrastructure of a housing division within the next twelve months. The personal goal aligns with the organizational goal of completing the subdivision.
MBO is a supervised and managed activity so that all of the individual goals can be coordinated to work towards the overall organizational goal. You can think of an individual personal goal as one piece of a puzzle that must fit together with all of the other pieces to form the complete puzzle: the organizational goal. Goals are set down in writing annually and are continually monitored by managers to check progress. Rewards are based upon goal achievement.
Management by Objectives defines roles and responsibilities for the employees and help them chalk out their future course of action in the organization. Management by objectives guides the employees to deliver their level best and achieve the targets within the stipulated time frame. MBO process helps the employees to understand their duties at the workplace. KRAs are designed for each employee as per their interest, specialization and educational qualification. The employees are clear as to what is expected out of them. Management by Objectives process leads to satisfied employees. It avoids job mismatch and unnecessary confusions later on.
Employees in their own way contribute to the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. Every employee has his own role at the workplace. Each one feels indispensable for the organization and eventually develops a feeling of loyalty towards the organization. They tend to stick to the organization for a longer span of time and contribute effectively. They enjoy at the workplace and do not treat work as a burden. MBO ensures effective communication amongst the employees. It leads to a positive ambiance at the workplace. MBO leads to well defined hierarchies at the workplace. It ensures transparency at all levels. A supervisor of any organization would never directly interact with the Managing Director in case of queries. He would first meet his reporting boss who would then pass on the message to his senior and so on. Every one is clear about his position in the organization. The MBO Process leads to highly motivated and committed employees. The MBO Process sets a benchmark for every employee. The superiors set targets for each of the team members. Each employee is given a list of specific tasks.
Limitations of Management by objectives Process
- It sometimes ignores the prevailing culture and working conditions of the organization.
- More emphasis is being laid on targets and objectives.
- It just expects the employees to achieve their targets and meet the objectives of the organization without bothering much about the existing circumstances at the workplace. Employees are just expected to perform and meet the deadlines.
- The MBO Process sometimes do treat individuals as mere machines.
- The MBO process increases comparisons between individuals at the workplace. Employees tend to depend on nasty politics and other unproductive tasks to outshine their fellow workers. Employees do only what their superiors ask them to do. Their work lacks innovation, creativity and sometimes also becomes monotonous.
MBO has some distinct advantages. It provides a means to identify and plan for the achievement of goals. If you don't know what your goals are, you will not be able to achieve them. Planning permits proactive behavior and a disciplined approach to goal achievement. It also allows you to prepare for contingencies and roadblocks that may hinder the plan. Goals are measurable so that they can be assessed and adjusted easily. Organizations can also gain more efficiency, save resources, and increase organizational morale if goals are properly set, managed, and achieved.
However, MBO is not without disadvantages. Application of MBO takes concerted effort. You cannot rely upon a thoughtless, mechanical approach, and you should note that some tasks are so simple that setting goals makes little sense and becomes more of a silly, annual ritual. For example, if your job is snapping two pieces of a product together on an assembly line, setting individual goals for your work isn't really necessary.
Rodney Brim, a CEO and critic of the MBO technique, has identified four other weaknesses. There is often a focus on mere goal setting rather than developing a plan that can be implemented. The organization often fails to take into account environmental factors that hinder goal achievement, such as lack of resources or management support. Organizations may also fail to monitor for changes, which may require modification of goals or even make them irrelevant. Finally, there is the issue of plain human neglect - failing to follow through on the goal.
Decision MatrixDecision Matrix: This process allows a group of people to reduce the Alternatives available to a more manageable number of consideration. Advantages: Logical Objective Quickly Defines options Disadvantages:
Business leaders have access to more information than ever before – yet, ironically, it can be harder than ever to make a decision. When faced with multiple choices and countless variables, a decision matrix can clear up confusion about the options and highlight points that may factor into the final call. This quantitative method can remove emotion, as well as confusion, so you can guide your business effectively.
A decision matrix is a tool to help you make good decisions when you must weigh difficult-to-compare factors. Rather than a simple list of pros and cons, a decision matrix allows you to place importance on each factor. Also known as the Pugh Method (named for creator Stuart Pugh), a decision matrix helps remove subjectivity in order to make a sound conclusion. However, that does not mean you should rule out your gut feeling, comparing the matrix winner against your intuition's choice.
PERT- program evaluation and review technique: This process focuses on identifying events and activities leading to the accomplishment of a long-range goal for objective.
1. Key events are identified for each long-range goal.
2. These events can be placed sequentially on a Continuum in order which the events must occur.
3. A time element could be assigned to each event to serve as a completion date for that event.
4. Activities needed to complete each event are easier to describe once all events are completed to date and what still be needs to be accomplished.
5. The PRT strategy permits all those who are involved in the decision-making be fully aware of,, x in the ultimate goal for each activity that is being conducted.
The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a widely used method for planning and coordinating large-scale projects. As Harold Kerzner explained in his book Project Management, "PERT is basically a management planning and control tool. It can be considered as a road map for a particular program or project in which all of the major elements (events) have been completely identified, together with their corresponding interrelations'¦. PERT charts are often constructed from back to front because, for many projects, the end date is fixed and the contractor has front-end flexibility." A basic element of PERT-style planning is to identify critical activities on which others depend. The technique is often referred to as PERT/CPM, the CPM standing for "critical path method."
PERT was developed during the 1950s through the efforts of the U.S. Navy and some of its contractors working on the Polaris missile project. Concerned about the growing nuclear arsenal of the Soviet Union, the U.S. government wanted to complete the Polaris project as quickly as possible. The Navy used PERT to coordinate the efforts of some 3,000 contractors involved with the project. Experts credited PERT with shortening the project duration by two years. Since then, all government contractors have been required to use PERT or a similar project analysis technique for all major government contracts.
The chief feature of PERT analysis is a network diagram that provides a visual depiction of the major project activities and the sequence in which they must be completed. Activities are defined as distinct steps toward completion of the project that consume either time or resources. The network diagram consists of arrows and nodes and can be organized using one of two different conventions. The arrows represent activities in the activity-on-arrow convention, while the nodes represent activities in the activity-on-node convention. For each activity, managers provide an estimate of the time required to complete it.
The sequence of activities leading from the starting point of the diagram to the finishing point of the diagram is called a path. The amount of time required to complete the work involved in any path can be figured by adding up the estimated times of all activities along that path. The path with the longest total time is then called the "critical path," hence the term CPM. The critical path is the most important part of the diagram for managers: it determines the completion date of the project. Delays in completing activities along the critical path necessitate an extension of the final deadline for the project. If a manager hopes to shorten the time required to complete the project, he or she must focus on finding ways to reduce the time involved in activities along the critical path.
The time estimates managers provide for the various activities comprising a project involve different degrees of certainty. When time estimates can be made with a high degree of certainty, they are called deterministic estimates. When they are subject to variation, they are called probabilistic estimates. In using the probabilistic approach, managers provide three estimates for each activity: an optimistic or best case estimate; a pessimistic or worst case estimate; and the most likely estimate. Statistical methods can be used to describe the extent of variability in these estimates, and thus the degree of uncertainty in the time provided for each activity. Computing the standard deviation of each path provides a probabilistic estimate of the time required to complete the overall project.
Managers can obtain a great deal of information by analyzing network diagrams of projects. For example, network diagrams show the sequence of activities involved in a project. From this sequence, managers can determine which activities must take place before others can begin, and which can occur independently of one another. Managers can also gain valuable insight by examining paths other than the critical path. Since these paths require less time to complete, they can often accommodate slippage without affecting the project completion time. The difference between the length of a given path and the length of the critical path is known as slack. Knowing where slack is located helps managers to allocate scarce resources and direct their efforts to control activities.
For complex problems involving hundreds of activities, computers are used to create and analyze the project networks. The project information input into the computer includes the earliest start time for each activity, earliest finish time for each activity, latest start time for each activity, and latest finish time for each activity without delaying the project completion. From these values, a computer algorithm can determine the expected project duration and the activities located on the critical path. Managers can use this information to determine where project time can be shortened by injecting additional resources, like workers or equipment. Needless to say, the solution of the algorithm is easy for the computer, but the resulting information will only be as good as the estimates originally made. Thus PERT depends on good estimates and sometimes inspired guesses.
PERT offers a number of advantages to managers. For example, it forces them to organize and quantify project information and provides them with a graphic display of the project. It also helps them to identify which activities are critical to the project completion time and should be watched closely, and which activities involve slack time and can be delayed without affecting the project completion time. The chief disadvantages of PERT lie in the nature of reality. Complex systems and plans, with many suppliers and channels of supply involved, sometimes make it difficult to predict precisely what will happen. The technique works best in well-understood engineering projects where sufficient experience exists to predict tasks accurately in advance.Advantages: Keeps Focus Omits details very visual Disadvantages: Need expert to create and explain