What is the task analysis
Methods of task analysis
Each method of task analysis will be described and examine recording appropriate uses, strength, weaknesses, resources required, incumbent workers.
Small group method
This method requires a minimum of three incumbent workers to participate in developing the task analysis. Snow workers to verify the completed task analysis.
This method requires a person trained and task analysis to research available resources. Also requires incumbent workers to verify the completed task analysis.
Job observation method
This method requires a worker who is performing the task and a person trained in task analysis to observe and analyze the task. Incumbent workers must verify the analysis.
Small group method
Some reasons for using the small group method of task analysis are:
- Tasks for new and emerging Technologies must be analyzed,
- Group leader is not a technical expert,
- Existing resources need to be updated,
- Task analysis must be completed in a short. Of time, and cross-section of business/Industry is important.
Some strengths of the small group method are:
Synergy: When incumbent workers begin discussion of steps and components of task analysis, involvement activated and a great deal of information is generated;
- A variety of experts is drawn upon,
- Business and industry are actively involved,
- And state-of-the-art information is provided.
Some weaknesses of the small group method are:
- It is sometimes difficult to get a good cross-section of
- Some workers, end
- some members May monopolize the session.
Recommended participants for the small group method are: At least three incumbent workers, one facilitator trained and task analysis procedures and small group process. One recorder who is not an incumbent worker, and additional incumbent workers to verify completed task analysis.
Some reasons for using the research method of task analysis are:
- Adequate resources are available,
- Established occupations are to be analyzed,
- Time is not a critical Factor.
Some strengths of the research method are:
- A quick start is possible when resource materials are available,
- A variety of resources and experts can be utilized,
- And flexible scheduling is possible.
Some weaknesses of the research method are:
- Adequate resources may not be available,
- Resources may not be up-to-date, resources may be incomplete,
- And it is time consuming too low can evaluate records.
Recommended participants for the research method or:
- One person with technical expertise who is trained in task analysis procedures,
- Incumbent workers to verify the completed task analysis.
Job observation method
Some reasons for using the job observation method of task analysis are:
- No resource materials exist,
- the quality of resources is suspect,
- new and emerging Technologies must be analyzed,
- specific detail is needed,
- send site-specific must be developed.
Some Springs of the job observation method are:
- It is most representative of actual worker performance of tasks,
- it is most accurate in detail of worker performance,
- It directly involves business and industry,
- end it is the best way to see state-of-the-art equipment in operation.
Some weaknesses of the job observation method are:
- Jobs must be observed over a. of,
- Jobs are often site-specific, workers May perform the task differently under observation,
- Scheduling problems may occur.
Recommended participants for the job observation method are:
- One person trained in job observation techniques including interviewing,
- skilled workers to be observed,
- an incumbent workers to verify completed task analysis.
Note: Play not be necessary for the trained person to observe the skilled workers on site. The workers performance could be videotaped and played back at a later time and location.
We will now learn how to complete a task analysis. First, you will be introduced to worker verified task lists. You must use task lists when completing a task analysis. Second, you will learn about the task analysis form and how to complete the form. 3rd you will learn in detail the guidelines and procedures to follow when completing a task analysis.
This is a portion of a worker verified task list. It contains tasks performed by workers in an occupation. Tasks are grouped into broad Duty areas.
Sample task list
Duty a: Inputting and storing documents files
1. Input data into spreadsheet formats
2. Input data to prepare graphs and charts
3. Input data into database files
4. Create backup files
Duty B: editing and creating, words, and files
1. Update existing records in database files
2. Update data on spreadsheets
3. Update data on graphs and charts
4. Delete text or data from Storage
5. Add data to backup files
6. Delete data from backup files
7. Process text and data using integrated software
Some of the information for completing the task analysis comes directly from the verified task list. See samples of a verified task list and task analysis below:
Regardless of what method of task analysis you use the steps for completing the analysis are the same the following Pages outline the steps for you.
Steps for completing a task analysis
1. List the exact occupational title from the verified task list
2. Enter the exact duty from the verified task list
3. Write the task statement from the task list
4. Write the performance standard for the task
Performance standards are specific, observable, measurable criteria for acceptable performance which a worker must meet when performing a task.
Performance standards include:
The characteristics of an acceptable product, or The acceptable process or the acceptable sequence of steps a worker must follow when performing a task
Sample performance standards
1. Process standard paper must be loaded in printer according to equipment manual with minimal downtime. Printer must be operable and paper must be properly aligned.
2. Product standard finished work must be dry and have a glossy appearance.
Product standards may be written before completing the entire task analysis. Process standards are more easily written after the steps are completed, as the detailed steps are needed to help determine the process standards. Resources do not contain the standards, the incumbent workers will need to generate or verify the standards.
Determining performance standards
Note performance standards must be industry based not teacher based.
Ask these or similar questions when you need to determine the performance standards for a task.
1. What standard must the workers meet when performing this task?
2. What steps must be performed in a given sequence? (in some tasks, steps must be performed in a given sequence in order to be successful.)
3. What degree of Tolerance is acceptable?
4. What are the acceptable time limits?
5. What appearance must the final product have? (often several conditions apply, e.g., smooth, tiny, or rounded.)
6. On what basis (e.g., tolerance, color, composition) would you judge that the product or task was performed accurately or correctly?
7. Are there any rules, sidelines, guidelines, industry standards which caused a worker to perform the task in a certain manner?
Follow these guidelines when determining for Foreman standards for a task.
1. List only industry standards
2. List the appearance, tolerance, or other basis for judging product quality.
Step 5: Steps
Steps or those procedures or activities that it worker does to complete a task.
- Activities, end
- thought processes.
Sample steps for performing a task
1. Obtain tree or shrub for planting.
2. Determine location of plant tree / shrub.
3. Dig hole for tree / shrub according to recommendations.
4. Perform necessary pruning before and after setting.
5. Prepare soil to refill the hole.
6 fill bottom of hole with prepared soil in order to set the plant at proper depth.
7. Place tree / in hole recommended depth.
8. Fill hole half full of soil.
9. Fill hole with water and allow it to soak into the soil.
10. Finish filling hole with soil.
11. Build berm around outer edge of hole.12. Water thoroughly.
13. Stake plant as recommended
14. Water as needed during the first growing season.
Determining the steps
Note: All questions will probably not be needed to generate the steps for each task. For some tasks: A few questions will need to be asked. List is given so that you can elicit the responses needed.
The following questions may be helpful when determining the steps for a task using the small group or research methods.
1. What are the steps in performing the task?
2. How do you get started?
3. When do you perform the task?
4. Where is the task performed?
5. Why do you do it?
6. How do you do it? Describe the steps for me.
7. How do you know when you are finished doing it?
8. Are there any decisions which must be made while performing the tasks?
9. How do you know when a decision is to be made, i.e., what cues are there?
10. Do the steps have to be done in a particular order?
11. Are there any consequences that may occur from an incorrect decision or if the steps are done in the wrong way? (errors)
12. Is there another way to do the task? If so, why do you do the task this way in your job?
The following are sample questions to keep in mind when using the job observation method.
1. What did the worker do first?
2. How did the worker get started?
3. What steps did the worker perform in completing the task?
4. Where their decisions made while performing the tasks? If yes, what cues were given? What errors will result from the wrong decision?
5. Where was the task performed?
6. When was the task performed?
7. When was the task completed or finished? 8. What resources were used to perform the task (equipment, cools, cereals, plies, human resources)?
Note: The questions in the previous section should be used with incumbent workers to verify the information you recorded while observing a worker.
Follow these guidelines when determining the steps for a task
1. There must be at least two steps.
2. List only worker steps.
3. List steps in chronological order - or in their normal sequence of what a worker does in performing the task, there is a sequence.
4. Begin steps with a present tense action verb which helps describe the activity (choose, determined, select, differentiate, identify, distinguish, isolate, separate etc.)
5. Determine the level of detail that is appropriate in the steps. Do not go into detail. This will be done when the instructional materials are prepared.
6. Skip there is more than one acceptable method for performing a task, methods and their steps.
7. List decisions that are made by workers as they perform the task. Decisions should be noted at any step where a choice is necessary. Also include in the step the cues that indicate a decision needs to be made. Finally, food errors which may result from the wrong decision or action by a worker.
Step 6: Knowledge
As a task is analyzed, becomes evident that certain types of knowledge are necessary to perform the task.
- Technical job knowledge, and
- Related job knowledge.
Technical knowledge is information which the worker must have or use in order to perform the task.
Related job knowledge is information needed by a worker to perform a task, but not " directly related " to a specific step in performing the task. Related job knowledge can be viewed as generalizable skills and may include math skills, science Concepts, language, or helpful information that supports the accurate performance of a task.
1. Identify parts of a modem and their functions.
2. Identify procedures to log on and off a computer.
3. Locate and use parts of a microcomputer, mini computer.
4.,nds to print and store(save) individual employee pension plan data.
The following are sample questions that may be helpful when analyzing the knowledge components of a task.
Note to determine the knowledge needed to perform a task, return to the steps already listed. Consider each step, one by one, and ask these questions.
1. What do workers need to know in order to perform this step?2. What terminology is required?
3. What procedures must be followed to perform the task?
4. What operation of tools and equipment is required?
5. What theories or principles are needed to complete the task?
6. What calculations need to be performed?
7. Are the techniques of problem solving, diagnosis, and troubleshooting required?
8. Is planning involved?
9. Is the selection of strategies involved?
10. Must the task be performed in accordance with briefing instructions?
11. His knowledge of " why " important to the procedure?
12. Is awareness of a systems approach to the job important to the successful performance of the task?
13. What problem solving skills are necessary for the successful performance of the task?
14. What scientific principles, rules, or concepts must the worker know, use, or apply?
15. Must the worker interpret scientific charts, raps, or other data?
16. What types of calculations must the worker make?
17. What specific math concept,, skills or functions must the worker apply?
18. What specific communication or language skills must the worker possess?
19. What reading, writing, speaking and listening skills are required of the worker?
20. What transition in copying skills are necessary for the successful performance of the task?
Follow these guidelines when listing the technical and related knowledge components of a task.
1. Identify all technical job knowledge needed to perform the task. Look at each step and ask, " what technical knowledge is needed by the worker to perform this step "?
2. Omit nice to know knowledge.
3. Use action verbs to begin the knowledge statements. (avoid using big words, such as no, understand, appreciate, and other non-measurable verbs.)
4. List knowledge statements from the standpoint of what a worker needs to know - what an instructor needs to teach a student.
5. List the scientific principles, rules, or concepts which must be used or applied by the worker.
6. List the type of charts or graphs which must be interpreted.
7. List the types of calculations which the worker must make.
8. List the specific math concepts, rules, or functions which must be applied or used by the worker.
9. List specific communication or language skills needed by the worker.10. List reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills required. 11. List any transition or copying skills needed by a worker.
Step 7: Attitudes
Attitudes are those unique behaviors or traits a worker exhibits in order to perform the task successfully.
- A workers disposition,
- Hey workers opinion,
- a workers manner of acting,
- thinking, or feeling; and
- a workers work habits.
Sample attitude statements
1. Maintain confidentiality of individual record of employment data.
2. Respect patients privacy and sensitivity.
The following are sample questions which may be asked when analyzing the attitude components of a task.
Note: What attitudes or worker traits, any, important to the performance of each step of the task.
1. What behaviors, attitudes, or worker traits are important to the successful performance of this task?
2. Is working as a team member important to the successful performance of this task?
3. Does the worker have to interact with others while performing this task?
4. What attitudes reflect positive worker Behavior versus unacceptable worker Behavior?
Follow these guidelines when determining the attitude for a task.
Note: Look at each step,one by one, determine any attitudes or worker traits needed to perform the task.
1. List only attitudes, behaviors, worker traits unique to the performance of this task.
2. Use industry language.
3. Approach the attitudes from a " job standpoint."
4. Begin each attitude statement with an action verb.
Step 8: Safety
- Safety related knowledge, practices, 10 procedures which support the safe performance of a task must be identified.
- Safety statements include:
- Safety factors or hazards which may be encountered by a worker while performing a task, and
- Safety practices and procedures.
Sample safety statements
1. Use safe practices when bending and stretching.
2. Avoid wearing loose ties and Jewelry.
3. Safeguard customers by proper handling of detergents and sanitizing agents which could cause illness.
4. Keep Personnel records in a safe and secure location.
5. Keep food and beverages away from computer equipment to avoid damage to the equipment and electrical shock to the operator.
6. Handle chemicals with care.
7. Use proper ventilation.
The following are sample questions to ask when analyzing the safety component of a task.
1. What safety procedures must be followed by the worker for each step of this task?
2. What hazards should the worker be aware of well performing this task?
3. What you need safety information is necessary for performing this task?
4. What safety factors must the worker be aware of wow performing this task?
5. What precautions need to be observed while performing this task?
Follow these guidelines when determining the safety statements for a task.
1. List only unique safety factors or hazards which may be encountered by a worker wow for forming each step of the task.
2. Begin safety statement with an action verb.
3. Use industry language.
4. List safety practices and procedures.
Step 9: Equipment and materials
Identify unique or highly specialized tools, equipment, applies, and/ or human resources needed to perform the task.
Equipment and materials include:
- Unique tools,
- Unique equipment,
- Unique materials,
- Unique supplies, and unique people, patience, or helpers needed to perform the task.
Sample equipment and materials
1. Micro computer, middle and computer Mainframe, mini computer
3. Payroll software or integrated accounting software
4. Pin feed, tenfold or single sheet paper
6. Hospital bed
7. Landscape plan
8. Microwave oven
Determining equipment and materials
These questions may be helpful when you must determine the tools, put, materials, paws, resources needed to perform a task.
1. What unique tools are needed to perform this task?
2. What unique equipment is needed to perform this task?
3. What unique materials are needed to perform this task?
4. What unique supplies are needed to perform this task?
5. What unique people are needed to perform this task?
Following these guidelines when analyzing the tools, equipment, materials, plies, resources component of a task.
1. List the tools unique to the performance of this task.
2. List the equipment unique to the performance of this task.
3. List the materials unique to the performance of this task.
4. List the supplies unique to the performance of this task.
5. List the patients or helpers unique to the performance of this task.
6. Use generic names, trade names, describe tools, equipment, materials, or supplies.
Step 10: Sources of analysis
- Sources of analysis include:
- Worker verified resource materials used,
- such as V-TECS catalogs,
- V-TECS guides,
- other industry Base information;
- and persons or organizations from which information has been received.
Sample sources of analysis
2. Team of incumbent workers
3. Freeport Memorial Hospital
Determining source of analysis
These are examples of questions to ask when listing the source of analysis for a task.
1. What people participated in the analysis and/ or what industry did they represent?
2. What were the major resource materials used for the analysis.?
3. Where did the job analysis take place?
4. When did the analysis take place?
Follow these guidelines When developing the source of analysis component of a task.
1. List the team of incumbent workers.
2. List the names and titles of the people who participated in the analysis, if applicable.
3. List the title of major resource materials used for the analysis, applicable.
4. List the names and titles of the skilled workers observed and the name of the company or place of observation, if couple.
5. List when the analysis took place.