Developing a curriculum is a system of analysis designed to be performed by expert workers. It provides a skill profile of an occupation to be used by a curriculum plan and or as an evaluation instrument. DACUM provides solid, relevant job analysis and receive strong support from local businesses and industry representatives. It operates on three premises:
1. Expert workers are better able to determine their job than anyone else is;
2. any job can be effectively described in terms of tasks performed; and
3. workers need certain knowledge and attitudes in order to perform their tasks(morton,1987).
Each of the aforementioned analysis systems utilizes a set of terms to describe the levels at which behaviors are performed. It serves no purpose to define each of the separate terms by system. The term that is used to define a level of performance in one system may be used to define a different level of performance in another system. We will present a comparison of terms that are utilized in occupational analysis by classification of terms (the level of performance), and by origin of terms (that system that utilizes the terms) in addition we will attempt to clarify the classification of terms by citing an example of each performance level which is common to all origins of terms. Is it any wonder that confusion rules supreme among professional vocational educators regarding the concept of occupational analysis.
In conclusion, there are no uniform terms, with few exceptions, to describe the separation, the analysis, of an occupation into its parts. Therefore, one may choose any available analysis system and expect equally successful outcomes so long as the terms that are used to describe the parts of the analysis are defined. It is important, however, that the terms used to describe the parts of an analysis be selected on the basis of a discernible rationale, and that the analysis be able to convey the definition of these terms with as little confusion to others who may have use of this information.
It has been pointed out that several of the analysis systems described earlier provide actual documents that a technical education teacher may use in order to answer the questions, "what are the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of my occupational specialization, and which shall I choose to incorporate into my planned program?" If it were possible to take any of these predeveloped documents and use them verbatim for program planning, planning process would be greatly simplified. Evidence indicates, however, that there is a lack of agreement on the part of planners regarding the classification of behavior. The observations suggest that in addition to the lack of agreement on the item classification, there may also be a lack of unification of items under each classification. Finally the most important omission within any predeveloped occupational analysis is directed input by the person who ultimately will need to use the document. There is no provision for the inclusion of personal experiences gained while learning and practicing one's occupation.
There are those who may argue that any of the predeveloped analysis may be revised to include those personal experiences deemed necessary for program delivery. Without a thorough knowledge of an analysis process and it's inherent classification system, it is, at best, difficult to impose personal behavior into an existing analysis. A more reasonable approach is for a technical education teacher to learn a system of occupational analysis and apply this system to the skills, knowledge, and attitudes which were gained as a result of their personal experience. This basic documentation may later be enhanced through comparison with any number of other resources, including predeveloped documents from other analysis systems.
What is a DACUM
- An approach to occupational (job) analysis.
- It is used extensively in Canada at post-secondary level.
- It is used by many secondary and post-secondary schools in the United States.
- It is used many times by the national Center for Research in Vocational Education
Found to be:
- Low cost
- Expert workers are better able to describe/define their occupation than anyone else.
- Any job to be effectively and sufficiently described in terms of the tasks successful workers in that occupation perform.
- All tasks have direct implications for the knowledge and attitudes that workers must have in order to perform the tasks correctly.
- Everyone participates equally
- Share ideas freely
- Hitchhike on each other's ideas
- Provide constructive suggestions rather than negative criticisms
- All task statements are carefully considered
- Do not use any references
- Observers cannot participate
- All tasks statements must begin with an action verb and reflected observable performance
Duties = an arbitrary grouping of related tasks
Usually 8 to 12 for job
Tasks = specific observable units of work
Usually 6 to 30 Purdue 50 - 2 her job
Steps = specific elements or activities required to perform a task
At least two or more per task
Job analysis= identification of job duties and tasks
Task analysis= identification of the steps, knowledge required, pools, safety factors, performance standards related to one or more tasks
- Reflect a meaningful unit of work
- Contain an action verb and an object that receives the action
- May contain one or more relevant qualifiers that omit qualifiers such as effectively and efficiently
- Are explicit, precise, and stand alone
- Avoid references to knowledge and attitudes needed
- Avoid references to tools and equipment that merely support task performance
Sample task analysis forms
Analyze each verified task to identify:
1. Step/activities involved
2. Related knowledge required
3. Attitudes involved
4. Performance standards
5. Tools and materials needed
6. Safety concerns
- Have a definite beginning and ending point
- Can be performed over a short period of time
- Can be performed independent of other work
- Can be observed and measured
- Results in a product, service, or decision
DACUM procedural steps
1. Orientation of committee
2. Review of occupation
3. Identify general areas of responsibilities (duties)
4. Identify specific tasks performed
5. Review and refine task and duty statements
6. Sequence task and duty statements
7. Identify entry-level tasks
8. Other options as desired