Probably the most important single concept in this module for an ID is that of stakeholders. The most general definition of a stakeholder is anyone who has a valid interest in your project and can influence or be influenced by the project.

Stakeholders are not specific to education or training and development. The idea of stakeholders comes to us from outside education, most notably from business. Students are the most obvious stakeholders in education at every level but there are many others.

This video is a very short explanation of Stakeholder theory from the sandpoint of a business. As you watch the video consider how much the explanation given is applicable in education: all, some, or none.

Stakeholder Theory

After watching the video and learning the major stakeholders for a business try to list as many stakeholders for the course you will be designing for the class project.

This is a more important than it may at first seem. For example, in the analysis phase you will need sources of information or validation. You will need to determine what data needs to be collected and exactly what to evaluate, among many other things. Knowing who the stakeholders are and their relative importance can be valuable in assisting in these analysis phase activities.

Stakeholder Quadrant Map

There are a number of ways that graphics can be used to present information on stakeholders. The two graphics below are one representation.

In the image below the stakeholders are catagorized by influence and interest. Interest is on the x axis and moves left to right from low to high interest. Infuence is on the y-axis and moves bottom to top from low to high infuence. This forms a qudrant map with the least important stakeholders, those with little influence and little interest, in the bottom left qudrant and the most important stakeholders, those with high influence and high interest in the top right quadrant.


In this image interaction strategies for each catagory of stakeholder are placed in the corresponding qudrant of the first image. So interactions with the least important stakeholders are simply informational. The interactions with the most important stakeholders are intended to manage this group closely.


Outlines for each stakeholder interaction strategy are presented below.

I Quadrant - Manage Closely

High Influence & High (Positive) Interest

High Influence & High (Negative) Interest / Resistance

II Quadrant - Keep Satisfied

High Influence and Low Interest

III Quadrant - Keep Informed

Low Influence and Low Interest

IV Quadrant - Monitor

Low Influence and High Interest

The image below illustrates stakeholders in education and their interests. While this image illustrates stakeholders in education it should be obvious that the same can be done for stakeholders in a corporate training and development environment or a training services company environment.