Introduction to Stellar Types


See important note at the bottom of this tab.


Going back to ancient times, stars were classified by brightness, which gave rise to the current magnitude system to describe stellar brightness and color. This system is quantitative, giving a precise numerical measure of both brightness and color.

With the development of spectroscopy, a new way of classifying stars came into being: stars were classified by the features of their spectra. This is the meaning of the obscure jargon of astronomers describing Sirius (α Canis Majoris) as an “A1 V” star and Pollux (β Geminorum) as a “K0 IIIb” star. The “A1” and the “K0” are spectral classifications, and the “V” and the “IIIb” are luminosity classifications. Unlike the magnitude system, the stellar type system is a pattern-matching system, so the notation tells us which prototype star a given star most resembles.

The spectrum of most stars is a continuum cut by dark bands. The dark bands are absorption lines, created when cool gas above a star's photosphere absorb the starlight from the photosphere. The positions of the lines are set by the chemical composition and temperature of the gas, and the strength of the lines depends on the temperature and density of the gas. Some stars, particularly many of the stars found in the constellations Orion and Canis Major, have spectra with emission lines.

When astronomers first began taking the spectra of stars, they found that the same line patterns kept recurring. At the Harvard College observatory at the end of the 19th century, the astronomers labeled these various spectral patterns with the letters A through Q. For instance, the letter A was given to the spectral pattern containing only hydrogen absorption lines, while O was given to spectra with emission lines. Determining a star's spectral type in this system is an issue of matching the pattern and strength of the various lines.

In time, as astronomers gained experience with this classification system, they consolidated some classes into others, and they learned that the spectral classes formed a continuous sequence. For instance, astronomers learned that the A and F stars were connected by a sequence of stars having a little of each pattern. The sequence of spectral types was found to be O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. When I was a graduate student in astronomy, this was taught as an acronym of the phrase “O Be A Fine Girl Kiss Me.” I haven't a clue as to whether this phrase has bit the politically-correct dust, but it is still a handy way of remembering the sequence.

The sequence of spectral types was adopted by the international community of astronomers, and became the standard for classifying stars in Harvard College Observatory's Henry Draper (HD) catalog, which was published between 1918 and 1925. To describe where between pairs of types a star falls, the Harvard astronomers added a number ranging from 0 to 9. For instance, stars with patterns that fall between A and F would be given the notations A0, A1, …, A8, A9, and F0. This system was further refined at the Yerkes observatory, giving us the system we use today—the Morgan-Keenan (MK) system. The system is describe in the Yerkes Atlas of 1943.

The reason the patterns of spectral lines follow a sequence is that the photospheric temperature determines the spectral pattern in most stars. The hottest stars, the O stars, have absorption lines of ionize helium and emission lines. At cooler temperatures, the emission lines disappear, and one sees the absorption lines of neutral helium and hydrogen, with the hydrogen lines the dominant features. These are classified as B stars, which do not have lines of metals (which, in astronomy jargon, means any element other than hydrogen and helium), and, for lower temperatures, as A stars, which do have the lines of metals. The O, B, and A stars are often referred to as “early type” stars. The F stars have weaker hydrogen lines than the A stars, and they have lines of ionized calcium. The G stars have weaker hydrogen lines than the F stars, strong lines of ionized calcium, and lines of neutral metals. The F and G types are “intermediate types.” In the cool K stars, lines of neutral metals are dominant in the spectrum. In the very cool M stars, the stellar atmosphere contains molecules that create bands of absorption rather than lines. Particularly strong in M stars are the absorption bands of titanium oxide. The K and M type stars are called “late type” stars.

Over 99 percent of all stars are described by the original MK system. To describe the small number of stars that do not fit the system, additional types were added. The type C and S classes were added to describe stars that are similar to type M stars except for some specific sets of spectral lines associated with specific molecules. Both of these classes are considered late-type classes. The C class represents stars with strong spectral lines of carbon. In particular, rather than titanium oxide, the C type stars have band of cyanogen (C2N2), carbon monoxide (CO), and molecular carbon (C2). The S class represents stars with the spectral bands of zirconium oxide (ZrO2). At the high-temperature end of the classification scheme are the W stars, which represent the Wolf-Rayet stars. These are stars descended from the O stars; the Wolf-Rayet stars have lost their outer envelopes of hydrogen, so that their spectra have strong lines of helium, carbon, and other heavier elements.

Class L and T Dwarf Stars

More recently, two additional spectral types have been added: L and T. These spectral classes describe the spectra of brown dwarfs. The brown dwarfs are the bodies that are smaller than the stars but larger than the gaseous planets. Their distinguishing feature is that they undergo a brief period of burning deuterium, but otherwise all the energy they release is generated through gravitational contraction. Over the past decade, about 500 brown dwarfs have been found. Observations show two different types of spectra, both of which varied from the spectra of the cool M dwarf stars. While the M dwarfs are characterized by lines of titanium oxide (TiO), no such lines are seen in the brown dwarfs, implying that the brown dwarfs are cooler than the M dwarfs. On the other hand hand, the coolest brown dwarfs have lines of methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3). These coolest brown dwarfs are given the type T. The warmer brown dwarfs, which do not have the lines of methane and ammonia, are designated by L.

For many years astronomers were faced with two questions that offered no ready answers: What are objects that are inter-mediate in mass between stars and planets like? Are they prevalent in the Universe and could they be a source of dark matter? Thanks partly to observations made from the Keck Observatory, astronomers can now provide those answers.

Stars form as gas collapses and heats up within interstellar clouds. “Brown dwarfs” are thought to form in the same way, but with masses too low to generate sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen fusion. Without a central energy source, brown dwarfs continue to cool forever, much like embers plucked from a roaring fire.

The term “brown dwarf” can be a bit misleading. Brown dwarfs actually appear to be reddish. Just like embers, brown dwarfs become redder as they cool (very hot embers are actually blue), so the best prospect for discovering them is with surveys conducted at infrared wavelengths, beyond the red extreme of the visible spectrum. One survey in particular, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), scanned the entire night sky at these wavelengths between 1997 and 2001.

Brown dwarf suspects were selected by looking for objects that were detected by the 2MASS survey, but that appeared virtually invisible (or at least very dim) on optical images of the same patch of sky. In 1997 observations on these candidates began at the Keck Observatory to obtain their spectra, a kind of fingerprint that splits the light into its component “colors” to reveal the object’s temperature and chemical makeup. With these spectra we were able to verify over two hundred previously unidentified brown dwarfs in the vicinity of the Sun.

Because of the distinctive new range of temperatures and chemical makeup of these objects, the century-old spectral type sequence that had become familiar to all astronomers had to be revised.

Fig. 1 shows an artist’s rendition comparing these new brown dwarf objects with the Sun. On the far left is the limb of the Sun. To its right is a “late-M dwarf” star, a type of very low-mass brown dwarf. The next is a hotter “L dwarf” star and a cooler “T dwarf” star. The planet Jupiter is on the far right.

The colors of the brown dwarfs are chosen to match an age of 1 billion years. Despite the range in mass, all four of these objects are approximately the same size, about 10 times smaller than the diameter of the Sun. Fig. 1 shows how these objects might appear to the human eye; the M and L dwarfs are red, while the T dwarf is dimly magenta.

Not only have observations at the Keck telescopes enabled us to learn more about what these objects are made of, they have also allowed us to answer the second question: Can these objects be the source of dark matter in the Universe?

Fig. 2 shows a typical slice of the Milky Way Galaxy (our Solar Neighborhood) and the numbers of objects we could expect to find in that slice. Despite escaping detection for so many years, it seems these new types of brown dwarf objects are at least as common as the stars in our own Milky Way galaxy, even though most are so cool that even the Keck telescopes cannot detect them. However, even with these large numbers, the mass of these brown dwarfs is so low they can be ruled out as the source of the missing dark matter. Thus, the nature and source of this dark matter remains mysterious.

Class L Dwarf Stars

Cooler than Type M stars they have temperatures in the range 1,300K to 2,000K, and are typically a red-brown color. The classic example is GD 165B, which lacks the vanadium and titanium oxides of warmer type M dwarfs, but shows hydroxides. Although designated dwarfs, some can be rather large; for example, the rather mysterious star V838 Monocerotis could be the first type L supergiant. In a February 2002 eruption, it expanded to become more than 1,500 times the size of the Sun; it would reach to the orbit of Jupiter. Prior to the eruption, it was probably five to ten times the mass of the Sun, and up to five times the diameter. The reason for the eruption remains conjectural, and includes possibilities as diverse as an atypical nova, a merge with a much smaller star (a so-called Luminous Red Nova), or possibly engulfing large gas giant planets that had been in orbit. Based on the theory that the star was very young, perhaps only about four million years old, I find the gas giant hypothesis hard to swallow. The image to the right shows a sequence of photographs of the eruption in 2002 through to 2004. The shell of gas and dust is concave towards us.

Class T Dwarf Stars

Even cooler with surface temperatures in the range 700º to 1,300º K, type T brown dwarfs would appear as a dark magenta color. Not surprisingly, they have an abundance of Methane in their spectra. It is thought that there may be a huge number of these, and type L dwarfs, that we are unable to see. Their lifetimes tend to be incredibly long, for the light weight dwarfs, so numbers would continue to increase. The first identified was Gliese 229B, which orbits the red dwarf Gliese 229A. Its surface temperature is estimated to be below 1,000º K, and it weighs only about 2% to 5% the mass of the Sun, or about 20 to 50 times the mass of Jupiter. Remember, a candle flame is between 1,350 and 1,650º K or so! Gliese 229B is the smaller object in the image to the right orbiting its larger companion Gliese 229A. They are about 19 light years away.

Another example is the binary pair Epsilon Indi Ba (T1V) & Bb (T6V) which are in orbit around Epsilon Indi itself. Epsilon Indi Ba, the larger of the pair, weighs about 4.5% of the Sun, while it is about 9% the diameter, with a temperature of 1,280K. Epsilon Indi Bb, meanwhile, weighs about 2.7% of the Sun, while it is about 9.6% the diameter, with a surface temperature of only 850K. Both are similar in size to Jupiter, but much heavier and, therefore, denser.

Class Y Ultra-Cool Brown Dwarfs

This is a theoretical classification suggested for brown dwarfs that are even cooler than T dwarfs, at less than 600º K, and without the methane content. Until early 2011, no confirmed example had been identified. A very dim brown dwarf, with the catchy name UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, was a candidate, though it is currently defined as a type T10. It is about 13 light-years away, so in our stellar back yard, and was discovered in 2010. It is barely warm with a surface temperature around 480K to 560K (207º to 287º C or 405º to 549º F). About the same size as Jupiter, it weighs about 5 to 30 times as much, which is between about 0.5% and 3% the mass of the Sun; so cool and small.

In March 2011, NASA announced that the smaller, and cooler, of a pair of brown dwarfs named CFBDSIR 1458+10 has a surface temperature of about 370K, the boiling point of water, and could well be a type Y. In fact, it is possible that it could have water clouds in its atmosphere. It is about 75 light-years away, and weighs about 5 to 15 times as much as Jupiter. The pair were imaged by the Keck telescope in Hawaii.

Summary: Brown Dwarfs

Spectra Line Width and Stellar Sub-classes

Besides the pattern of lines in a spectrum, observers characterize the width of the lines in their classification system. This was originally noted by a roman numeral that runs from I to VII, with the I referring to narrow lines and the VII referring to broad lines. Subclasses have been added to the original number system, so there are IIIa and IIIb subclasses that bracket the III class, the first with a narrower line width, and the second with a broader line width. At the narrow-end of the scheme, Ia, Iab, and Ib have replaced I, with the sequence going from narrow line width to broad line width. The narrowest lines are now labeled 0.

These markers of spectral line width define the luminosity classes of the stars. The stars on the main sequence define the V luminosity class. The stars in classes II and III are called giants, and the stars in class I are called supergiants. The degenerate dwarfs have a VII luminosity class.

The reason that the width of an absorption line is a measure of luminosity is that the width of the line depends on two physical conditions at the photosphere of a star: the temperature and the density. The temperature affects the width because the atoms emitting the radiation are moving with a velocity proportional to the square-root of the temperature, and this velocity causes a Doppler shift of the radiation before it is absorbed by the atoms. Because atoms are moving both towards and away from the observer, some atoms absorb radiation that has been blue shifted, and other atoms absorb radiation that has been red shifted. The net effect is to broaden the line. The density affects the width of lines because collisions between atoms affect the absorption of light, causing the lines to broaden. The higher the collision rate between atoms, the broader the lines. Because the collision rate increases with density, the width of an absorption line increases with density. All stars of a given spectral class have the same photospheric temperature, so the width of the absorption lines is a direct measure of the density. But the physically-larger stars have a more tenuous atmosphere than the smaller stars of the same photospheric temperature. A larger star therefore couples a larger photosphere area to a lower density than does a smaller star of the same spectral type, so the larger star is more luminous and has narrower spectral lines than the smaller star.

Because he luminosity classes are classifications of stars by line width, they do not correspond to fixed values of luminosity as one looks across the range of spectral types. There is only a small difference in luminosity in going from I to V for the early-type stars, but the difference in luminosity is dramatic at the late end of the spectral classification. For instance, for O5 stars, luminosity classes I and V fall within 1 magnitude, for A0 stars, they are separated by almost 8 magnitudes, and for G0 stars, they are separated by 12 magnitudes. The reason is that the I luminosity is nearly constant in absolute magnitude as the stellar type changes, but the V luminosity follows the main sequence in its absolute magnitude as the stellar type changes.

In the MK system, a star's stellar type is determined by comparing the pattern of lines in the star's spectrum to the spectrum of a set of prototypical stars. This means that when we say a star is a type A0 V star, we mean that it has a pattern of spectral lines that resembles those seen in a prototypical A0 V star—for instance, Vega (α Lyrae). One of the prototypical G2 V stars is the Sun.

The stellar type system is a purely empirical classification scheme that simultaneously describes both a star's photospheric temperature and luminosity in terms of the spectral characteristics of a handful of prototypical stars.


Important Notes on the following tables.


Absolute magnitude was derived from the standard Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The book Stars and Their Spectra by James B. Kaler was used as a resource for deriving the absolute magnitude for each possible luminosity class. Classifications N, S, WC, WN, C, and R are mapped as follows:

N and S are equivalent to M.

WC and WN are equivalent to O.

C spans G4 to M9.

R spans G4 to M0.


Temperature was derived from the relationship between luminosity class and spectral class. The book Stars and Their Spectra by James B. Kaler and Mitchell Charity's work on star colors was used as a resource for deriving temperature for Main Sequence (V), Supergiant (Ia), Giant (II), and Dwarf (D) luminosity classes. Luminosity classes Ia0, Ib, III, IV, and VI are mapped as follows:

Temperatures of Ia0 and Ib are equivalent to Ia.

Temperatures of II is equivalent to III.

Temperatures of IV and VI are equivalent to V.


Mass was derived from many sources including Astrophysical Formulae by Kenneth R. Lang. Many rows are heavily interpolated from known data on star mass.

Class Ia0: Hypergiants or extremely luminous supergiants

Stellar
Type
Mass
Mstar/Msun
Luminosity
Lstar/Lsun
Radius
Rstar/Rsun
Temp
K
Color Index
B-V
Abs Mag
Mv
Bolo Corr
BC(Temp)
Bolo Mag
Mbol
Lifetime Rate of
Rotation
km/s

Habital Zone

WC0Ia0 160.0 3.41e+07 8.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -9.5 -4.58 -14.08      
WC1Ia0 159.7 2.71e+07 7.88e+01 47600 -0.35 -9.4 -4.43 -13.83      
WC2Ia0 159.4 2.14e+07 7.77e+01 45200 -0.35 -9.3 -4.28 -13.58      
WC3Ia0 159.0 1.68e+07 7.69e+01 42800 -0.34 -9.2 -4.12 -13.32      
WC4Ia0 158.7 1.32e+07 7.64e+01 40400 -0.33 -9.1 -3.95 -13.05      
WC5Ia0 158.4 1.03e+07 7.62e+01 38000 -0.33 -9.0 -3.78 -12.78      
WC6Ia0 136.7 7.81e+06 7.66e+01 35400 -0.32 -8.9 -3.58 -12.48      
WC7Ia0 115.1 5.88e+06 7.74e+01 32800 -0.31 -8.8 -3.37 -12.17      
WC8Ia0 93.4 4.37e+06 7.87e+01 30200 -0.30 -8.7 -3.15 -11.85      
WC9Ia0 71.8 3.19e+06 8.05e+01 27600 -0.29 -8.6 -2.91 -11.51      
WN0Ia0 160.0 3.41e+07 8.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -9.5 -4.58 -14.08      
WN1Ia0 159.7 2.71e+07 7.88e+01 47600 -0.35 -9.4 -4.43 -13.83      
WN2Ia0 159.4 2.14e+07 7.77e+01 45200 -0.35 -9.3 -4.28 -13.58      
WN3Ia0 159.0 1.68e+07 7.69e+01 42800 -0.34 -9.2 -4.12 -13.32      
WN4Ia0 158.7 1.32e+07 7.64e+01 40400 -0.33 -9.1 -3.95 -13.05      
WN5Ia0 158.4 1.03e+07 7.62e+01 38000 -0.33 -9.0 -3.78 -12.78      
WN6Ia0 136.7 7.81e+06 7.66e+01 35400 -0.32 -8.9 -3.58 -12.48      
WN7Ia0 115.1 5.88e+06 7.74e+01 32800 -0.31 -8.8 -3.37 -12.17      
WN8Ia0 93.4 4.37e+06 7.87e+01 30200 -0.30 -8.7 -3.15 -11.85      
WN9Ia0 71.8 3.19e+06 8.05e+01 27600 -0.29 -8.6 -2.91 -11.51      
O0Ia0 160.0 3.41e+07 8.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -9.5 -4.58 -14.08      
O1Ia0 159.7 2.71e+07 7.88e+01 47600 -0.35 -9.4 -4.43 -13.83      
O2Ia0 159.4 2.14e+07 7.77e+01 45200 -0.35 -9.3 -4.28 -13.58      
O3Ia0 159.0 1.68e+07 7.69e+01 42800 -0.34 -9.2 -4.12 -13.32      
O4Ia0 158.7 1.32e+07 7.64e+01 40400 -0.33 -9.1 -3.95 -13.05      
O5Ia0 158.4 1.03e+07 7.62e+01 38000 -0.33 -9.0 -3.78 -12.78   190  
O6Ia0 136.7 7.81e+06 7.66e+01 35400 -0.32 -8.9 -3.58 -12.48      
O7Ia0 115.1 5.88e+06 7.74e+01 32800 -0.31 -8.8 -3.37 -12.17      
O8Ia0 93.4 4.37e+06 7.87e+01 30200 -0.30 -8.7 -3.15 -11.85      
O9Ia0 71.8 3.19e+06 8.05e+01 27600 -0.29 -8.6 -2.91 -11.51      
B0Ia0 50.1 2.28e+06 8.30e+01 25000 -0.27 -8.5 -2.65 -11.15      
B1Ia0 45.1 2.02e+06 8.62e+01 23790 -0.26 -8.5 -2.51 -11.01   200  
B2Ia0 40.1 1.62e+06 8.57e+01 22580 -0.25 -8.4 -2.37 -10.77      
B3Ia0 35.1 1.42e+06 8.95e+01 21370 -0.24 -8.4 -2.23 -10.63      
B4Ia0 30.1 1.23e+06 9.37e+01 20160 -0.23 -8.4 -2.07 -10.47      
B5Ia0 25.1 9.65e+05 9.39e+01 18950 -0.22 -8.3 -1.91 -10.21   210  
B6Ia0 23.2 7.58e+05 1.02e+02 17140 -0.20 -8.3 -1.65 -9.95      
B7Ia0 21.4 5.33e+05 1.07e+02 15330 -0.18 -8.2 -1.37 -9.57      
B8Ia0 19.5 3.67e+05 1.14e+02 13520 -0.15 -8.1 -1.06 -9.16      
B9Ia0 17.7 2.73e+05 1.31e+02 11710 -0.11 -8.1 -0.74 -8.84      
A0Ia0 15.8 1.86e+05 1.51e+02 9900 -0.06 -8.0 -0.42 -8.42   190  
A1Ia0 15.2 1.98e+05 1.62e+02 9707 -0.06 -8.1 -0.39 -8.49      
A2Ia0 14.5 2.10e+05 1.74e+02 9513 -0.05 -8.2 -0.36 -8.56      
A3Ia0 13.9 2.24e+05 1.87e+02 9320 -0.05 -8.3 -0.33 -8.63      
A4Ia0 13.2 2.39e+05 2.02e+02 9127 -0.04 -8.4 -0.30 -8.70      
A5Ia0 12.6 2.55e+05 2.17e+02 8933 -0.00 -8.5 -0.27 -8.77   160  
A6Ia0 12.6 2.49e+05 2.24e+02 8740 0.03 -8.5 -0.24 -8.74      
A7Ia0 12.6 2.67e+05 2.43e+02 8547 0.07 -8.6 -0.21 -8.81      
A8Ia0 12.6 2.60e+05 2.51e+02 8353 0.10 -8.6 -0.19 -8.79      
A9Ia0 12.6 2.80e+05 2.73e+02 8160 0.14 -8.7 -0.17 -8.87      
F0Ia0 12.6 2.74e+05 2.83e+02 7967 0.18 -8.7 -0.15 -8.85   95  
F1Ia0 12.1 2.96e+05 3.09e+02 7773 0.22 -8.8 -0.13 -8.93      
F2Ia0 11.6 2.91e+05 3.23e+02 7580 0.26 -8.8 -0.11 -8.91      
F3Ia0 11.0 3.16e+05 3.54e+02 7387 0.30 -8.9 -0.10 -9.00      
F4Ia0 10.5 3.43e+05 3.89e+02 7193 0.34 -9.0 -0.09 -9.09      
F5Ia0 10.0 3.74e+05 4.29e+02 7000 0.39 -9.1 -0.08 -9.18      
F6Ia0 10.0 3.74e+05 4.60e+02 6760 0.44 -9.1 -0.08 -9.18      
F7Ia0 10.0 4.13e+05 5.19e+02 6520 0.50 -9.2 -0.09 -9.29      
F8Ia0 10.0 4.19e+05 5.64e+02 6280 0.56 -9.2 -0.11 -9.31      
F9Ia0 10.0 4.73e+05 6.54e+02 6011 0.63 -9.3 -0.14 -9.44      
G0Ia0 10.0 4.95e+05 7.32e+02 5743 0.70 -9.3 -0.19 -9.49   12  
G1Ia0 10.5 5.27e+05 8.32e+02 5474 0.78 -9.3 -0.25 -9.55      
G2Ia0 11.0 5.73e+05 9.59e+02 5206 0.86 -9.3 -0.35 -9.65      
G3Ia0 11.5 7.03e+05 1.18e+03 4937 0.94 -9.4 -0.47 -9.87      
G4Ia0 12.0 8.13e+05 1.42e+03 4669 1.03 -9.4 -0.62 -10.02      
G5Ia0 12.5 1.07e+06 1.84e+03 4400 1.13 -9.5 -0.83 -10.33      
G6Ia0 12.5 1.12e+06 1.93e+03 4343 1.15 -9.5 -0.88 -10.38      
G7Ia0 12.5 1.18e+06 2.03e+03 4286 1.17 -9.5 -0.93 -10.43      
G8Ia0 12.5 1.13e+06 2.04e+03 4229 1.19 -9.4 -0.98 -10.38      
G9Ia0 12.5 1.19e+06 2.16e+03 4171 1.21 -9.4 -1.04 -10.44      
K0Ia0 12.5 1.26e+06 2.28e+03 4114 1.24 -9.4 -1.10 -10.50      
K1Ia0 12.5 1.22e+06 2.30e+03 4057 1.26 -9.3 -1.17 -10.47      
K2Ia0 13.3 1.30e+06 2.44e+03 4000 1.28 -9.3 -1.23 -10.53      
K3Ia0 14.2 1.46e+06 2.72e+03 3900 1.32 -9.3 -1.36 -10.66      
K4Ia0 15.0 1.65e+06 3.06e+03 3800 1.36 -9.3 -1.50 -10.80      
K5Ia0 15.8 1.90e+06 3.46e+03 3700 1.41 -9.3 -1.65 -10.95      
K6Ia0 15.8 1.85e+06 3.38e+03 3717 1.40 -9.3 -1.62 -10.92      
K7Ia0 15.8 1.81e+06 3.32e+03 3733 1.39 -9.3 -1.59 -10.89      
K8Ia0 15.8 1.77e+06 3.25e+03 3750 1.38 -9.3 -1.57 -10.87      
K9Ia0 15.8 1.83e+06 3.35e+03 3725 1.39 -9.3 -1.61 -10.91      
M0Ia0 15.8 1.90e+06 3.46e+03 3700 1.41 -9.3 -1.65 -10.95      
M1Ia0 15.1 2.56e+06 4.46e+03 3510 1.49 -9.3 -1.97 -11.27      
M2Ia0 14.5 3.65e+06 5.95e+03 3320 1.58 -9.3 -2.36 -11.66      
M3Ia0 13.8 5.07e+06 7.89e+03 3130 1.67 -9.2 -2.81 -12.01      
M4Ia0 13.2 8.38e+06 1.15e+04 2940 1.77 -9.2 -3.36 -12.56      
M5Ia0 12.5 1.53e+07 1.78e+04 2750 1.88 -9.2 -4.01 -13.21      
M6Ia0 12.4 2.88e+07 2.81e+04 2560 2.00 -9.1 -4.80 -13.90      
M7Ia0 12.3 6.96e+07 5.10e+04 2370 2.12 -9.1 -5.76 -14.86      
M8Ia0 12.1 2.05e+08 1.03e+05 2180 2.25 -9.1 -6.93 -16.03      
M9Ia0 12.0 7.11e+08 2.31e+05 1990 2.40 -9.0 -8.38 -17.38      
R0Ia0 12.0 8.13e+05 1.42e+03 4669 1.03 -9.4 -0.62 -10.02      
R1Ia0 12.4 8.71e+05 1.54e+03 4561 1.07 -9.4 -0.70 -10.10      
R2Ia0 12.8 9.40e+05 1.68e+03 4453 1.11 -9.4 -0.78 -10.18      
R3Ia0 13.3 9.32e+05 1.75e+03 4346 1.15 -9.3 -0.87 -10.17      
R4Ia0 13.7 1.02e+06 1.93e+03 4238 1.19 -9.3 -0.97 -10.27      
R5Ia0 14.1 1.13e+06 2.14e+03 4130 1.23 -9.3 -1.08 -10.38      
R6Ia0 14.5 1.26e+06 2.39e+03 4023 1.27 -9.3 -1.20 -10.50      
R7Ia0 15.0 1.43e+06 2.68e+03 3915 1.32 -9.3 -1.34 -10.64      
R8Ia0 15.4 1.64e+06 3.03e+03 3808 1.36 -9.3 -1.48 -10.78      
R9Ia0 15.8 1.90e+06 3.46e+03 3700 1.41 -9.3 -1.65 -10.95      
S0Ia0 15.8 1.90e+06 3.46e+03 3700 1.41 -9.3 -1.65 -10.95      
S1Ia0 15.1 2.56e+06 4.46e+03 3510 1.49 -9.3 -1.97 -11.27      
S2Ia0 14.5 3.65e+06 5.95e+03 3320 1.58 -9.3 -2.36 -11.66      
S3Ia0 13.8 5.07e+06 7.89e+03 3130 1.67 -9.2 -2.81 -12.01      
S4Ia0 13.2 8.38e+06 1.15e+04 2940 1.77 -9.2 -3.36 -12.56      
S5Ia0 12.5 1.53e+07 1.78e+04 2750 1.88 -9.2 -4.01 -13.21      
S6Ia0 12.4 2.88e+07 2.81e+04 2560 2.00 -9.1 -4.80 -13.90      
S7Ia0 12.3 6.96e+07 5.10e+04 2370 2.12 -9.1 -5.76 -14.86      
S8Ia0 12.1 2.05e+08 1.03e+05 2180 2.25 -9.1 -6.93 -16.03      
S9Ia0 12.0 7.11e+08 2.31e+05 1990 2.40 -9.0 -8.38 -17.38      
N0Ia0 15.8 1.90e+06 3.46e+03 3700 1.41 -9.3 -1.65 -10.95      
N1Ia0 15.1 2.56e+06 4.46e+03 3510 1.49 -9.3 -1.97 -11.27      
N2Ia0 14.5 3.65e+06 5.95e+03 3320 1.58 -9.3 -2.36 -11.66      
N3Ia0 13.8 5.07e+06 7.89e+03 3130 1.67 -9.2 -2.81 -12.01      
N4Ia0 13.2 8.38e+06 1.15e+04 2940 1.77 -9.2 -3.36 -12.56      
N5Ia0 12.5 1.53e+07 1.78e+04 2750 1.88 -9.2 -4.01 -13.21      
N6Ia0 12.4 2.88e+07 2.81e+04 2560 2.00 -9.1 -4.80 -13.90      
N7Ia0 12.3 6.96e+07 5.10e+04 2370 2.12 -9.1 -5.76 -14.86      
N8Ia0 12.1 2.05e+08 1.03e+05 2180 2.25 -9.1 -6.93 -16.03      
N9Ia0 12.0 7.11e+08 2.31e+05 1990 2.40 -9.0 -8.38 -17.38      
C0Ia0 12.0 8.13e+05 1.42e+03 4669 1.03 -9.4 -0.62 -10.02      
C1Ia0 12.7 1.10e+06 1.88e+03 4371 1.14 -9.5 -0.85 -10.35      
C2Ia0 13.5 1.31e+06 2.37e+03 4073 1.25 -9.4 -1.15 -10.55      
C3Ia0 14.2 1.71e+06 3.15e+03 3776 1.37 -9.3 -1.53 -10.83      
C4Ia0 15.0 2.71e+06 4.67e+03 3478 1.50 -9.3 -2.03 -11.33      
C5Ia0 15.7 4.94e+06 7.55e+03 3180 1.65 -9.3 -2.68 -11.98      
C6Ia0 14.8 1.09e+07 1.36e+04 2883 1.80 -9.3 -3.54 -12.84      
C7Ia0 13.9 2.85e+07 2.74e+04 2585 1.98 -9.2 -4.69 -13.89      
C8Ia0 12.9 1.08e+08 6.82e+04 2288 2.17 -9.1 -6.23 -15.33      
C9Ia0 12.0 7.11e+08 2.31e+05 1990 2.40 -9.0 -8.38 -17.38      

Class Ia Luminous Supergiants

Stellar
Type
Mass
Mstar/Msun
Luminosity
Lstar/Lsun
Radius
Rstar/Rsun
Temp
K
Color Index
B-V
Abs Mag
Mv
Bolo Corr
BC(Temp)
Bolo Mag
Mbol
Lifetime Rate of Rotation

Habital Zone

WC0Ia 150.0 2.59e+06 2.21e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.7 -4.58 -11.28      
WC1Ia 149.3 2.25e+06 2.27e+01 47600 -0.35 -6.7 -4.43 -11.13      
WC2Ia 148.6 2.14e+06 2.46e+01 45200 -0.35 -6.8 -4.28 -11.08      
WC3Ia 148.0 1.85e+06 2.55e+01 42800 -0.34 -6.8 -4.12 -10.92      
WC4Ia 147.3 1.74e+06 2.77e+01 40400 -0.33 -6.9 -3.95 -10.85      
WC5Ia 142.0 1.48e+06 2.90e+01 38000 -0.33 -6.9 -3.78 -10.68      
WC6Ia 120.1 1.36e+06 3.19e+01 35400 -0.32 -7.0 -3.58 -10.58      
WC7Ia 100.9 1.12e+06 3.38e+01 32800 -0.31 -7.0 -3.37 -10.37      
WC8Ia 81.7 9.13e+05 3.60e+01 30200 -0.30 -7.0 -3.15 -10.15      
WC9Ia 63.1 7.31e+05 3.85e+01 27600 -0.29 -7.0 -2.91 -9.91      
WN0Ia 150.0 2.59e+06 2.21e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.7 -4.58 -11.28      
WN1Ia 149.3 2.25e+06 2.27e+01 47600 -0.35 -6.7 -4.43 -11.13      
WN2Ia 148.6 2.14e+06 2.46e+01 45200 -0.35 -6.8 -4.28 -11.08      
WN3Ia 148.0 1.85e+06 2.55e+01 42800 -0.34 -6.8 -4.12 -10.92      
WN4Ia 147.3 1.74e+06 2.77e+01 40400 -0.33 -6.9 -3.95 -10.85      
WN5Ia 142.0 1.48e+06 2.90e+01 38000 -0.33 -6.9 -3.78 -10.68      
WN6Ia 120.1 1.36e+06 3.19e+01 35400 -0.32 -7.0 -3.58 -10.58      
WN7Ia 100.9 1.12e+06 3.38e+01 32800 -0.31 -7.0 -3.37 -10.37      
WN8Ia 81.7 9.13e+05 3.60e+01 30200 -0.30 -7.0 -3.15 -10.15      
WN9Ia 63.1 7.31e+05 3.85e+01 27600 -0.29 -7.0 -2.91 -9.91      
O0Ia 150.0 2.59e+06 2.21e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.7 -4.58 -11.28      
O1Ia 149.3 2.25e+06 2.27e+01 47600 -0.35 -6.7 -4.43 -11.13      
O2Ia 148.6 2.14e+06 2.46e+01 45200 -0.35 -6.8 -4.28 -11.08      
O3Ia 148.0 1.85e+06 2.55e+01 42800 -0.34 -6.8 -4.12 -10.92      
O4Ia 147.3 1.74e+06 2.77e+01 40400 -0.33 -6.9 -3.95 -10.85      
O5Ia 142.0 1.48e+06 2.90e+01 38000 -0.33 -6.9 -3.78 -10.68      
O6Ia 120.1 1.36e+06 3.19e+01 35400 -0.32 -7.0 -3.58 -10.58      
O7Ia 100.9 1.12e+06 3.38e+01 32800 -0.31 -7.0 -3.37 -10.37      
O8Ia 81.7 9.13e+05 3.60e+01 30200 -0.30 -7.0 -3.15 -10.15      
O9Ia 63.1 7.31e+05 3.85e+01 27600 -0.29 -7.0 -2.91 -9.91      
B0Ia 44.7 5.73e+05 4.16e+01 25000 -0.27 -7.0 -2.65 -9.65      
B1Ia 40.0 5.07e+05 4.32e+01 23790 -0.26 -7.0 -2.51 -9.51      
B2Ia 35.2 4.46e+05 4.50e+01 22580 -0.25 -7.0 -2.37 -9.37      
B3Ia 30.5 4.28e+05 4.92e+01 21370 -0.24 -7.1 -2.23 -9.33      
B4Ia 26.2 3.38e+05 4.92e+01 20160 -0.23 -7.0 -2.07 -9.07      
B5Ia 21.9 2.91e+05 5.16e+01 18950 -0.22 -7.0 -1.91 -8.91      
B6Ia 20.2 2.29e+05 5.59e+01 17140 -0.20 -7.0 -1.65 -8.65      
B7Ia 18.6 1.93e+05 6.43e+01 15330 -0.18 -7.1 -1.37 -8.47      
B8Ia 16.9 1.60e+05 7.52e+01 13520 -0.15 -7.2 -1.06 -8.26      
B9Ia 15.3 1.31e+05 9.05e+01 11710 -0.11 -7.3 -0.74 -8.04      
A0Ia 13.7 1.07e+05 1.14e+02 9900 -0.06 -7.4 -0.42 -7.82      
A1Ia 13.1 1.14e+05 1.23e+02 9707 -0.06 -7.5 -0.39 -7.89      
A2Ia 12.5 1.21e+05 1.32e+02 9513 -0.05 -7.6 -0.36 -7.96      
A3Ia 12.0 1.29e+05 1.42e+02 9320 -0.05 -7.7 -0.33 -8.03      
A4Ia 11.4 1.38e+05 1.53e+02 9127 -0.04 -7.8 -0.30 -8.10      
A5Ia 10.8 1.61e+05 1.73e+02 8933 -0.00 -8.0 -0.27 -8.27      
A6Ia 10.8 1.89e+05 1.95e+02 8740 0.03 -8.2 -0.24 -8.44      
A7Ia 10.8 2.22e+05 2.21e+02 8547 0.07 -8.4 -0.21 -8.61      
A8Ia 10.8 2.38e+05 2.40e+02 8353 0.10 -8.5 -0.19 -8.69      
A9Ia 10.8 2.33e+05 2.49e+02 8160 0.14 -8.5 -0.17 -8.67      
F0Ia 10.8 2.28e+05 2.58e+02 7967 0.18 -8.5 -0.15 -8.65      
F1Ia 10.3 2.24e+05 2.69e+02 7773 0.22 -8.5 -0.13 -8.63      
F2Ia 9.9 2.02e+05 2.68e+02 7580 0.26 -8.4 -0.11 -8.51      
F3Ia 9.4 1.99e+05 2.81e+02 7387 0.30 -8.4 -0.10 -8.50      
F4Ia 9.0 1.80e+05 2.82e+02 7193 0.34 -8.3 -0.09 -8.39      
F5Ia 8.6 1.63e+05 2.83e+02 7000 0.39 -8.2 -0.08 -8.28      
F6Ia 8.6 1.49e+05 2.90e+02 6760 0.44 -8.1 -0.08 -8.18      
F7Ia 8.5 1.37e+05 2.99e+02 6520 0.50 -8.0 -0.09 -8.09      
F8Ia 8.5 1.27e+05 3.10e+02 6280 0.56 -7.9 -0.11 -8.01      
F9Ia 8.5 1.30e+05 3.43e+02 6011 0.63 -7.9 -0.14 -8.04      
G0Ia 6.3 1.24e+05 3.67e+02 5743 0.70 -7.8 -0.19 -7.99      
G1Ia 6.6 1.32e+05 4.17e+02 5474 0.78 -7.8 -0.25 -8.05      
G2Ia 6.9 1.31e+05 4.59e+02 5206 0.86 -7.7 -0.35 -8.05      
G3Ia 7.2 1.47e+05 5.40e+02 4937 0.94 -7.7 -0.47 -8.17      
G4Ia 7.5 1.70e+05 6.49e+02 4669 1.03 -7.7 -0.62 -8.32      
G5Ia 7.8 1.86e+05 7.66e+02 4400 1.13 -7.6 -0.83 -8.43      
G6Ia 7.9 1.95e+05 8.04e+02 4343 1.15 -7.6 -0.88 -8.48      
G7Ia 8.0 2.05e+05 8.46e+02 4286 1.17 -7.6 -0.93 -8.53      
G8Ia 8.1 1.96e+05 8.51e+02 4229 1.19 -7.5 -0.98 -8.48      
G9Ia 8.1 2.07e+05 8.98e+02 4171 1.21 -7.5 -1.04 -8.54      
K0Ia 8.2 2.19e+05 9.50e+02 4114 1.24 -7.5 -1.10 -8.60      
K1Ia 8.3 2.12e+05 9.60e+02 4057 1.26 -7.4 -1.17 -8.57      
K2Ia 8.8 2.25e+05 1.02e+03 4000 1.28 -7.4 -1.23 -8.63      
K3Ia 9.4 2.53e+05 1.14e+03 3900 1.32 -7.4 -1.36 -8.76      
K4Ia 9.9 2.62e+05 1.22e+03 3800 1.36 -7.3 -1.50 -8.80      
K5Ia 10.4 3.01e+05 1.38e+03 3700 1.41 -7.3 -1.65 -8.95      
K6Ia 10.6 2.94e+05 1.35e+03 3717 1.40 -7.3 -1.62 -8.92      
K7Ia 10.7 2.62e+05 1.26e+03 3733 1.39 -7.2 -1.59 -8.79      
K8Ia 10.9 2.56e+05 1.23e+03 3750 1.38 -7.2 -1.57 -8.77      
K9Ia 11.1 2.65e+05 1.27e+03 3725 1.39 -7.2 -1.61 -8.81      
M0Ia 13.3 2.74e+05 1.31e+03 3700 1.41 -7.2 -1.65 -8.85      
M1Ia 12.7 3.37e+05 1.62e+03 3510 1.49 -7.1 -1.97 -9.07      
M2Ia 12.1 4.81e+05 2.16e+03 3320 1.58 -7.1 -2.36 -9.46      
M3Ia 11.6 7.33e+05 3.00e+03 3130 1.67 -7.1 -2.81 -9.91      
M4Ia 11.0 1.10e+06 4.18e+03 2940 1.77 -7.0 -3.36 -10.36      
M5Ia 10.5 2.02e+06 6.45e+03 2750 1.88 -7.0 -4.01 -11.01      
M6Ia 10.3 4.17e+06 1.07e+04 2560 2.00 -7.0 -4.80 -11.80      
M7Ia 10.2 9.18e+06 1.85e+04 2370 2.12 -6.9 -5.76 -12.66      
M8Ia 10.1 2.70e+07 3.76e+04 2180 2.25 -6.9 -6.93 -13.83      
M9Ia 10.0 1.03e+08 8.79e+04 1990 2.40 -6.9 -8.38 -15.28      
R0Ia 10.2 1.70e+05 6.49e+02 4669 1.03 -7.7 -0.62 -8.32      
R1Ia 10.5 1.66e+05 6.72e+02 4561 1.07 -7.6 -0.70 -8.30      
R2Ia 10.8 1.79e+05 7.33e+02 4453 1.11 -7.6 -0.78 -8.38      
R3Ia 11.2 1.78e+05 7.66e+02 4346 1.15 -7.5 -0.87 -8.37      
R4Ia 11.5 1.95e+05 8.44e+02 4238 1.19 -7.5 -0.97 -8.47      
R5Ia 11.9 1.97e+05 8.93e+02 4130 1.23 -7.4 -1.08 -8.48      
R6Ia 12.2 2.20e+05 9.95e+02 4023 1.27 -7.4 -1.20 -8.60      
R7Ia 12.6 2.27e+05 1.07e+03 3915 1.32 -7.3 -1.34 -8.64      
R8Ia 12.9 2.59e+05 1.21e+03 3808 1.36 -7.3 -1.48 -8.78      
R9Ia 13.3 2.74e+05 1.31e+03 3700 1.41 -7.2 -1.65 -8.85      
S0Ia 13.3 2.74e+05 1.31e+03 3700 1.41 -7.2 -1.65 -8.85      
S1Ia 12.7 3.37e+05 1.62e+03 3510 1.49 -7.1 -1.97 -9.07      
S2Ia 12.1 4.81e+05 2.16e+03 3320 1.58 -7.1 -2.36 -9.46      
S3Ia 11.6 7.33e+05 3.00e+03 3130 1.67 -7.1 -2.81 -9.91      
S4Ia 11.0 1.10e+06 4.18e+03 2940 1.77 -7.0 -3.36 -10.36      
S5Ia 10.5 2.02e+06 6.45e+03 2750 1.88 -7.0 -4.01 -11.01      
S6Ia 10.3 4.17e+06 1.07e+04 2560 2.00 -7.0 -4.80 -11.80      
S7Ia 10.2 9.18e+06 1.85e+04 2370 2.12 -6.9 -5.76 -12.66      
S8Ia 10.1 2.70e+07 3.76e+04 2180 2.25 -6.9 -6.93 -13.83      
S9Ia 10.0 1.03e+08 8.79e+04 1990 2.40 -6.9 -8.38 -15.28      
N0Ia 13.3 2.74e+05 1.31e+03 3700 1.41 -7.2 -1.65 -8.85      
N1Ia 12.7 3.37e+05 1.62e+03 3510 1.49 -7.1 -1.97 -9.07      
N2Ia 12.1 4.81e+05 2.16e+03 3320 1.58 -7.1 -2.36 -9.46      
N3Ia 11.6 7.33e+05 3.00e+03 3130 1.67 -7.1 -2.81 -9.91      
N4Ia 11.0 1.10e+06 4.18e+03 2940 1.77 -7.0 -3.36 -10.36      
N5Ia 10.5 2.02e+06 6.45e+03 2750 1.88 -7.0 -4.01 -11.01      
N6Ia 10.3 4.17e+06 1.07e+04 2560 2.00 -7.0 -4.80 -11.80      
N7Ia 10.2 9.18e+06 1.85e+04 2370 2.12 -6.9 -5.76 -12.66      
N8Ia 10.1 2.70e+07 3.76e+04 2180 2.25 -6.9 -6.93 -13.83      
N9Ia 10.0 1.03e+08 8.79e+04 1990 2.40 -6.9 -8.38 -15.28      
C0Ia 10.2 1.70e+05 6.49e+02 4669 1.03 -7.7 -0.62 -8.32      
C1Ia 10.8 1.91e+05 7.85e+02 4371 1.14 -7.6 -0.85 -8.45      
C2Ia 11.4 2.28e+05 9.89e+02 4073 1.25 -7.5 -1.15 -8.65      
C3Ia 12.0 2.97e+05 1.31e+03 3776 1.37 -7.4 -1.53 -8.93      
C4Ia 12.6 4.29e+05 1.86e+03 3478 1.50 -7.3 -2.03 -9.33      
C5Ia 13.2 7.83e+05 3.00e+03 3180 1.65 -7.3 -2.68 -9.98      
C6Ia 12.4 1.57e+06 5.18e+03 2883 1.80 -7.2 -3.54 -10.74      
C7Ia 11.6 4.12e+06 1.04e+04 2585 1.98 -7.1 -4.69 -11.79      
C8Ia 10.8 1.56e+07 2.59e+04 2288 2.17 -7.0 -6.23 -13.23      
C9Ia 10.0 1.03e+08 8.79e+04 1990 2.40 -6.9 -8.38 -15.28      

Class II: Luminous Giants

Stellar
Type
Mass
Mstar/Msun
Luminosity
Lstar/Lsun
Radius
Rstar/Rsun
Temp
K
Color Index
B-V
Abs Mag
Mv
Bolo Corr
BC(Temp)
Bolo Mag
Mbol
Lifetime Rate of Rotation

Habital Zone

WC0II 130.0 2.15e+06 2.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.5 -4.58 -11.08      
WC1II 128.6 1.73e+06 1.98e+01 47800 -0.35 -6.4 -4.44 -10.84      
WC2II 127.2 1.52e+06 2.03e+01 45600 -0.35 -6.4 -4.30 -10.70      
WC3II 125.8 1.21e+06 2.00e+01 43400 -0.34 -6.3 -4.16 -10.46      
WC4II 124.4 9.60e+05 1.98e+01 41200 -0.34 -6.2 -4.01 -10.21      
WC5II 109.2 7.59e+05 1.97e+01 39000 -0.33 -6.1 -3.85 -9.95      
WC6II 86.9 6.54e+05 2.05e+01 36800 -0.32 -6.1 -3.69 -9.79      
WC7II 72.5 5.10e+05 2.05e+01 34600 -0.32 -6.0 -3.52 -9.52      
WC8II 58.2 3.60e+05 1.96e+01 32400 -0.31 -5.8 -3.34 -9.14      
WC9II 45.9 2.76e+05 1.98e+01 30200 -0.30 -5.7 -3.15 -8.85      
WN0II 130.0 2.15e+06 2.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.5 -4.58 -11.08      
WN1II 128.6 1.73e+06 1.98e+01 47800 -0.35 -6.4 -4.44 -10.84      
WN2II 127.2 1.52e+06 2.03e+01 45600 -0.35 -6.4 -4.30 -10.70      
WN3II 125.8 1.21e+06 2.00e+01 43400 -0.34 -6.3 -4.16 -10.46      
WN4II 124.4 9.60e+05 1.98e+01 41200 -0.34 -6.2 -4.01 -10.21      
WN5II 109.2 7.59e+05 1.97e+01 39000 -0.33 -6.1 -3.85 -9.95      
WN6II 86.9 6.54e+05 2.05e+01 36800 -0.32 -6.1 -3.69 -9.79      
WN7II 72.5 5.10e+05 2.05e+01 34600 -0.32 -6.0 -3.52 -9.52      
WN8II 58.2 3.60e+05 1.96e+01 32400 -0.31 -5.8 -3.34 -9.14      
WN9II 45.9 2.76e+05 1.98e+01 30200 -0.30 -5.7 -3.15 -8.85      
O0II 130.0 2.15e+06 2.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.5 -4.58 -11.08      
O1II 128.6 1.73e+06 1.98e+01 47800 -0.35 -6.4 -4.44 -10.84      
O2II 127.2 1.52e+06 2.03e+01 45600 -0.35 -6.4 -4.30 -10.70      
O3II 125.8 1.21e+06 2.00e+01 43400 -0.34 -6.3 -4.16 -10.46      
O4II 124.4 9.60e+05 1.98e+01 41200 -0.34 -6.2 -4.01 -10.21      
O5II 109.2 7.59e+05 1.97e+01 39000 -0.33 -6.1 -3.85 -9.95      
O6II 86.9 6.54e+05 2.05e+01 36800 -0.32 -6.1 -3.69 -9.79      
O7II 72.5 5.10e+05 2.05e+01 34600 -0.32 -6.0 -3.52 -9.52      
O8II 58.2 3.60e+05 1.96e+01 32400 -0.31 -5.8 -3.34 -9.14      
O9II 45.9 2.76e+05 1.98e+01 30200 -0.30 -5.7 -3.15 -8.85      
B0II 33.8 1.90e+05 1.91e+01 28000 -0.29 -5.5 -2.95 -8.45      
B1II 29.7 1.34e+05 1.83e+01 26190 -0.28 -5.3 -2.77 -8.07      
B2II 25.5 9.36e+04 1.77e+01 24380 -0.27 -5.1 -2.58 -7.68      
B3II 21.4 6.45e+04 1.71e+01 22570 -0.25 -4.9 -2.37 -7.27      
B4II 18.4 4.37e+04 1.67e+01 20760 -0.24 -4.7 -2.15 -6.85      
B5II 15.5 2.91e+04 1.63e+01 18950 -0.22 -4.5 -1.91 -6.41      
B6II 14.2 1.74e+04 1.54e+01 17140 -0.20 -4.2 -1.65 -5.85      
B7II 12.9 1.11e+04 1.54e+01 15330 -0.18 -4.0 -1.37 -5.37      
B8II 11.7 6.99e+03 1.57e+01 13520 -0.15 -3.8 -1.06 -4.86      
B9II 10.5 4.32e+03 1.65e+01 11710 -0.11 -3.6 -0.74 -4.34      
A0II 9.4 2.68e+03 1.81e+01 9900 -0.06 -3.4 -0.42 -3.82      
A1II 8.9 2.35e+03 1.79e+01 9650 -0.06 -3.3 -0.38 -3.68      
A2II 8.5 2.07e+03 1.77e+01 9400 -0.05 -3.2 -0.34 -3.54      
A3II 8.1 1.66e+03 1.67e+01 9150 -0.04 -3.0 -0.30 -3.30      
A4II 7.7 1.46e+03 1.66e+01 8900 0.00 -2.9 -0.26 -3.16      
A5II 7.2 1.29e+03 1.65e+01 8650 0.05 -2.8 -0.23 -3.03      
A6II 7.2 1.14e+03 1.65e+01 8400 0.09 -2.7 -0.20 -2.90      
A7II 7.2 1.11e+03 1.72e+01 8150 0.14 -2.7 -0.17 -2.87      
A8II 7.2 9.90e+02 1.73e+01 7900 0.19 -2.6 -0.14 -2.74      
A9II 7.1 9.70e+02 1.83e+01 7650 0.24 -2.6 -0.12 -2.72      
F0II 7.1 8.70e+02 1.85e+01 7400 0.30 -2.5 -0.10 -2.60      
F1II 6.8 8.65e+02 1.92e+01 7260 0.33 -2.5 -0.09 -2.59      
F2II 6.5 8.60e+02 1.99e+01 7120 0.36 -2.5 -0.09 -2.59      
F3II 6.3 7.82e+02 1.97e+01 6980 0.39 -2.4 -0.08 -2.48      
F4II 6.0 7.81e+02 2.05e+01 6840 0.42 -2.4 -0.08 -2.48      
F5II 5.7 7.83e+02 2.14e+01 6700 0.46 -2.4 -0.08 -2.48      
F6II 5.7 7.86e+02 2.24e+01 6560 0.49 -2.4 -0.09 -2.49      
F7II 5.6 7.91e+02 2.34e+01 6420 0.52 -2.4 -0.10 -2.50      
F8II 5.6 7.29e+02 2.35e+01 6280 0.56 -2.3 -0.11 -2.41      
F9II 5.6 7.39e+02 2.48e+01 6140 0.60 -2.3 -0.12 -2.42      
G0II 2.1 7.84e+02 2.92e+01 5743 0.70 -2.3 -0.19 -2.49      
G1II 2.2 8.35e+02 3.31e+01 5474 0.78 -2.3 -0.25 -2.55      
G2II 2.3 9.09e+02 3.82e+01 5206 0.86 -2.3 -0.35 -2.65      
G3II 2.4 1.11e+03 4.70e+01 4937 0.94 -2.4 -0.47 -2.87      
G4II 2.5 1.29e+03 5.65e+01 4669 1.03 -2.4 -0.62 -3.02      
G5II 2.6 1.55e+03 6.99e+01 4400 1.13 -2.4 -0.83 -3.23      
G6II 2.7 1.62e+03 7.33e+01 4343 1.15 -2.4 -0.88 -3.28      
G7II 2.8 1.70e+03 7.71e+01 4286 1.17 -2.4 -0.93 -3.33      
G8II 2.9 1.96e+03 8.51e+01 4229 1.19 -2.5 -0.98 -3.48      
G9II 3.0 2.07e+03 8.98e+01 4171 1.21 -2.5 -1.04 -3.54      
K0II 3.1 2.19e+03 9.50e+01 4114 1.24 -2.5 -1.10 -3.60      
K1II 3.3 2.32e+03 1.01e+02 4057 1.26 -2.5 -1.17 -3.67      
K2II 3.4 2.47e+03 1.07e+02 4000 1.28 -2.5 -1.23 -3.73      
K3II 3.6 2.77e+03 1.19e+02 3900 1.32 -2.5 -1.36 -3.86      
K4II 3.8 3.15e+03 1.33e+02 3800 1.36 -2.5 -1.50 -4.00      
K5II 3.9 3.62e+03 1.51e+02 3700 1.41 -2.5 -1.65 -4.15      
K6II 4.2 3.53e+03 1.48e+02 3717 1.40 -2.5 -1.62 -4.12      
K7II 4.4 3.45e+03 1.45e+02 3733 1.39 -2.5 -1.59 -4.09      
K8II 4.6 3.69e+03 1.48e+02 3750 1.38 -2.6 -1.57 -4.17      
K9II 4.9 3.83e+03 1.53e+02 3725 1.39 -2.6 -1.61 -4.21      
M0II 8.2 3.96e+03 1.58e+02 3700 1.41 -2.6 -1.65 -4.25      
M1II 7.8 5.86e+03 2.13e+02 3510 1.49 -2.7 -1.97 -4.67      
M2II 7.4 8.36e+03 2.85e+02 3320 1.58 -2.7 -2.36 -5.06      
M3II 7.1 1.40e+04 4.14e+02 3130 1.67 -2.8 -2.81 -5.61      
M4II 6.7 2.31e+04 6.04e+02 2940 1.77 -2.8 -3.36 -6.16      
M5II 6.4 4.62e+04 9.76e+02 2750 1.88 -2.9 -4.01 -6.91      
M6II 6.3 9.55e+04 1.62e+03 2560 2.00 -2.9 -4.80 -7.70      
M7II 6.2 2.53e+05 3.07e+03 2370 2.12 -3.0 -5.76 -8.76      
M8II 6.1 7.44e+05 6.23e+03 2180 2.25 -3.0 -6.93 -9.93      
M9II 6.0 2.83e+06 1.46e+04 1990 2.40 -3.0 -8.38 -11.38      
R0II 6.5 1.29e+03 5.65e+01 4669 1.03 -2.4 -0.62 -3.02      
R1II 6.7 1.38e+03 6.13e+01 4561 1.07 -2.4 -0.70 -3.10      
R2II 6.8 1.49e+03 6.68e+01 4453 1.11 -2.4 -0.78 -3.18      
R3II 7.0 1.78e+03 7.66e+01 4346 1.15 -2.5 -0.87 -3.37      
R4II 7.2 1.95e+03 8.44e+01 4238 1.19 -2.5 -0.97 -3.47      
R5II 7.4 2.16e+03 9.35e+01 4130 1.23 -2.5 -1.08 -3.58      
R6II 7.6 2.41e+03 1.04e+02 4023 1.27 -2.5 -1.20 -3.70      
R7II 7.8 2.99e+03 1.22e+02 3915 1.32 -2.6 -1.34 -3.94      
R8II 8.0 3.42e+03 1.38e+02 3808 1.36 -2.6 -1.48 -4.08      
R9II 8.2 3.96e+03 1.58e+02 3700 1.41 -2.6 -1.65 -4.25      
S0II 8.2 3.96e+03 1.58e+02 3700 1.41 -2.6 -1.65 -4.25      
S1II 7.8 5.86e+03 2.13e+02 3510 1.49 -2.7 -1.97 -4.67      
S2II 7.4 8.36e+03 2.85e+02 3320 1.58 -2.7 -2.36 -5.06      
S3II 7.1 1.40e+04 4.14e+02 3130 1.67 -2.8 -2.81 -5.61      
S4II 6.7 2.31e+04 6.04e+02 2940 1.77 -2.8 -3.36 -6.16      
S5II 6.4 4.62e+04 9.76e+02 2750 1.88 -2.9 -4.01 -6.91      
S6II 6.3 9.55e+04 1.62e+03 2560 2.00 -2.9 -4.80 -7.70      
S7II 6.2 2.53e+05 3.07e+03 2370 2.12 -3.0 -5.76 -8.76      
S8II 6.1 7.44e+05 6.23e+03 2180 2.25 -3.0 -6.93 -9.93      
S9II 6.0 2.83e+06 1.46e+04 1990 2.40 -3.0 -8.38 -11.38      
N0II 8.2 3.96e+03 1.58e+02 3700 1.41 -2.6 -1.65 -4.25      
N1II 7.8 5.86e+03 2.13e+02 3510 1.49 -2.7 -1.97 -4.67      
N2II 7.4 8.36e+03 2.85e+02 3320 1.58 -2.7 -2.36 -5.06      
N3II 7.1 1.40e+04 4.14e+02 3130 1.67 -2.8 -2.81 -5.61      
N4II 6.7 2.31e+04 6.04e+02 2940 1.77 -2.8 -3.36 -6.16      
N5II 6.4 4.62e+04 9.76e+02 2750 1.88 -2.9 -4.01 -6.91      
N6II 6.3 9.55e+04 1.62e+03 2560 2.00 -2.9 -4.80 -7.70      
N7II 6.2 2.53e+05 3.07e+03 2370 2.12 -3.0 -5.76 -8.76      
N8II 6.1 7.44e+05 6.23e+03 2180 2.25 -3.0 -6.93 -9.93      
N9II 6.0 2.83e+06 1.46e+04 1990 2.40 -3.0 -8.38 -11.38      
C0II 6.5 1.29e+03 5.65e+01 4669 1.03 -2.4 -0.62 -3.02      
C1II 6.8 1.59e+03 7.16e+01 4371 1.14 -2.4 -0.85 -3.25      
C2II 7.1 2.28e+03 9.89e+01 4073 1.25 -2.5 -1.15 -3.65      
C3II 7.4 3.57e+03 1.44e+02 3776 1.37 -2.6 -1.53 -4.13      
C4II 7.8 6.20e+03 2.23e+02 3478 1.50 -2.7 -2.03 -4.73      
C5II 8.1 1.13e+04 3.61e+02 3180 1.65 -2.7 -2.68 -5.38      
C6II 7.6 2.73e+04 6.83e+02 2883 1.80 -2.8 -3.54 -6.34      
C7II 7.1 8.61e+04 1.51e+03 2585 1.98 -2.9 -4.69 -7.59      
C8II 6.6 3.58e+05 3.92e+03 2288 2.17 -2.9 -6.23 -9.13      
C9II 6.0 2.83e+06 1.46e+04 1990 2.40 -3.0 -8.38 -11.38      

Class III: Normal Giants

Stellar
Type
Mass
Mstar/Msun
Luminosity
Lstar/Lsun
Radius
Rstar/Rsun
Temp
K
Color Index
B-V
Abs Mag
Mv
Bolo Corr
BC(Temp)
Bolo Mag
Mbol
Lifetime Rate of Rotation

Habital Zone

WC0III 120.0 2.15e+06 2.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.5 -4.58 -11.08      
WC1III 118.2 1.58e+06 1.89e+01 47800 -0.35 -6.3 -4.44 -10.74      
WC2III 116.5 1.26e+06 1.85e+01 45600 -0.35 -6.2 -4.30 -10.50      
WC3III 114.7 9.17e+05 1.75e+01 43400 -0.34 -6.0 -4.16 -10.16      
WC4III 112.9 7.28e+05 1.73e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.9 -4.01 -9.91      
WC5III 92.8 5.25e+05 1.64e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.7 -3.85 -9.55      
WC6III 70.2 3.76e+05 1.56e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.5 -3.69 -9.19      
WC7III 58.4 2.94e+05 1.55e+01 34600 -0.32 -5.4 -3.52 -8.92      
WC8III 46.5 2.07e+05 1.49e+01 32400 -0.31 -5.2 -3.34 -8.54      
WC9III 37.3 1.59e+05 1.50e+01 30200 -0.30 -5.1 -3.15 -8.25      
WN0III 120.0 2.15e+06 2.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.5 -4.58 -11.08      
WN1III 118.2 1.58e+06 1.89e+01 47800 -0.35 -6.3 -4.44 -10.74      
WN2III 116.5 1.26e+06 1.85e+01 45600 -0.35 -6.2 -4.30 -10.50      
WN3III 114.7 9.17e+05 1.75e+01 43400 -0.34 -6.0 -4.16 -10.16      
WN4III 112.9 7.28e+05 1.73e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.9 -4.01 -9.91      
WN5III 92.8 5.25e+05 1.64e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.7 -3.85 -9.55      
WN6III 70.2 3.76e+05 1.56e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.5 -3.69 -9.19      
WN7III 58.4 2.94e+05 1.55e+01 34600 -0.32 -5.4 -3.52 -8.92      
WN8III 46.5 2.07e+05 1.49e+01 32400 -0.31 -5.2 -3.34 -8.54      
WN9III 37.3 1.59e+05 1.50e+01 30200 -0.30 -5.1 -3.15 -8.25      
O0III 120.0 2.15e+06 2.02e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.5 -4.58 -11.08      
O1III 118.2 1.58e+06 1.89e+01 47800 -0.35 -6.3 -4.44 -10.74      
O2III 116.5 1.26e+06 1.85e+01 45600 -0.35 -6.2 -4.30 -10.50      
O3III 114.7 9.17e+05 1.75e+01 43400 -0.34 -6.0 -4.16 -10.16      
O4III 112.9 7.28e+05 1.73e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.9 -4.01 -9.91      
O5III 92.8 5.25e+05 1.64e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.7 -3.85 -9.55      
O6III 70.2 3.76e+05 1.56e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.5 -3.69 -9.19      
O7III 58.4 2.94e+05 1.55e+01 34600 -0.32 -5.4 -3.52 -8.92      
O8III 46.5 2.07e+05 1.49e+01 32400 -0.31 -5.2 -3.34 -8.54      
O9III 37.3 1.59e+05 1.50e+01 30200 -0.30 -5.1 -3.15 -8.25      
B0III 28.4 1.09e+05 1.45e+01 28000 -0.29 -4.9 -2.95 -7.85      
B1III 24.5 5.34e+04 1.16e+01 26190 -0.28 -4.3 -2.77 -7.07      
B2III 20.6 2.83e+04 9.71e+00 24380 -0.27 -3.8 -2.58 -6.38      
B3III 16.8 1.35e+04 7.82e+00 22570 -0.25 -3.2 -2.37 -5.57      
B4III 14.5 6.93e+03 6.63e+00 20760 -0.24 -2.7 -2.15 -4.85      
B5III 12.3 3.19e+03 5.40e+00 18950 -0.22 -2.1 -1.91 -4.01      
B6III 11.2 1.74e+03 4.87e+00 17140 -0.20 -1.7 -1.65 -3.35      
B7III 10.1 1.01e+03 4.66e+00 15330 -0.18 -1.4 -1.37 -2.77      
B8III 9.0 5.30e+02 4.33e+00 13520 -0.15 -1.0 -1.06 -2.06      
B9III 8.1 2.99e+02 4.33e+00 11710 -0.11 -0.7 -0.74 -1.44      
A0III 7.2 1.54e+02 4.35e+00 9900 -0.06 -0.3 -0.42 -0.72      
A1III 6.9 1.24e+02 4.10e+00 9650 -0.06 -0.1 -0.38 -0.48      
A2III 6.5 9.90e+01 3.87e+00 9400 -0.05 0.1 -0.34 -0.24      
A3III 6.2 8.71e+01 3.83e+00 9150 -0.04 0.2 -0.30 -0.10      
A4III 5.8 7.00e+01 3.63e+00 8900 0.00 0.4 -0.26 0.14      
A5III 5.4 5.64e+01 3.45e+00 8650 0.05 0.6 -0.23 0.37      
A6III 5.4 4.55e+01 3.28e+00 8400 0.09 0.8 -0.20 0.60      
A7III 5.4 3.68e+01 3.14e+00 8150 0.14 1.0 -0.17 0.83      
A8III 5.4 3.28e+01 3.15e+00 7900 0.19 1.1 -0.14 0.96      
A9III 5.3 2.67e+01 3.03e+00 7650 0.24 1.3 -0.12 1.18      
F0III 5.3 2.19e+01 2.93e+00 7400 0.30 1.5 -0.10 1.40      
F1III 5.1 2.17e+01 3.04e+00 7260 0.33 1.5 -0.09 1.41      
F2III 4.9 1.97e+01 3.01e+00 7120 0.36 1.6 -0.09 1.51      
F3III 4.7 1.96e+01 3.12e+00 6980 0.39 1.6 -0.08 1.52      
F4III 4.5 1.96e+01 3.25e+00 6840 0.42 1.6 -0.08 1.52      
F5III 4.3 2.16e+01 3.55e+00 6700 0.46 1.5 -0.08 1.42      
F6III 4.2 2.37e+01 3.89e+00 6560 0.49 1.4 -0.09 1.31      
F7III 4.2 2.62e+01 4.26e+00 6420 0.52 1.3 -0.10 1.20      
F8III 4.1 2.90e+01 4.69e+00 6280 0.56 1.2 -0.11 1.09      
F9III 4.1 3.22e+01 5.17e+00 6140 0.60 1.1 -0.12 0.98      
G0III 1.8 3.75e+01 6.38e+00 5743 0.70 1.0 -0.19 0.81      
G1III 1.8 4.38e+01 7.59e+00 5474 0.78 0.9 -0.25 0.65      
G2III 1.9 5.23e+01 9.16e+00 5206 0.86 0.8 -0.35 0.45      
G3III 1.9 7.03e+01 1.18e+01 4937 0.94 0.6 -0.47 0.13      
G4III 2.0 8.91e+01 1.49e+01 4669 1.03 0.5 -0.62 -0.12      
G5III 2.0 1.18e+02 1.92e+01 4400 1.13 0.4 -0.83 -0.43      
G6III 2.1 1.23e+02 2.02e+01 4343 1.15 0.4 -0.88 -0.48      
G7III 2.2 1.29e+02 2.12e+01 4286 1.17 0.4 -0.93 -0.53      
G8III 2.2 1.24e+02 2.14e+01 4229 1.19 0.5 -0.98 -0.48      
G9III 2.3 1.31e+02 2.26e+01 4171 1.21 0.5 -1.04 -0.54      
K0III 2.3 1.38e+02 2.39e+01 4114 1.24 0.5 -1.10 -0.60      
K1III 2.4 1.61e+02 2.64e+01 4057 1.26 0.4 -1.17 -0.77      
K2III 2.5 2.06e+02 3.08e+01 4000 1.28 0.2 -1.23 -1.03      
K3III 2.6 2.53e+02 3.59e+01 3900 1.32 0.1 -1.36 -1.26      
K4III 2.7 3.45e+02 4.42e+01 3800 1.36 -0.1 -1.50 -1.60      
K5III 2.8 4.35e+02 5.23e+01 3700 1.41 -0.2 -1.65 -1.85      
K6III 3.0 4.65e+02 5.36e+01 3717 1.40 -0.3 -1.62 -1.92      
K7III 3.1 4.99e+02 5.50e+01 3733 1.39 -0.4 -1.59 -1.99      
K8III 3.3 5.34e+02 5.64e+01 3750 1.38 -0.5 -1.57 -2.07      
K9III 3.4 6.06e+02 6.09e+01 3725 1.39 -0.6 -1.61 -2.21      
M0III 5.6 6.89e+02 6.58e+01 3700 1.41 -0.7 -1.65 -2.35      
M1III 5.3 9.29e+02 8.50e+01 3510 1.49 -0.7 -1.97 -2.67      
M2III 5.1 1.21e+03 1.08e+02 3320 1.58 -0.6 -2.36 -2.96      
M3III 4.8 1.84e+03 1.50e+02 3130 x1.67 -0.6 -2.81 -3.41      
M4III 4.6 2.77e+03 2.09e+02 2940 1.77 -0.5 -3.36 -3.86      
M5III 4.3 5.07e+03 3.23e+02 2750 1.88 -0.5 -4.01 -4.51      
M6III 4.2 9.55e+03 5.12e+02 2560 2.00 -0.4 -4.80 -5.20      
M7III 4.2 2.10e+04 8.87e+02 2370 2.12 -0.3 -5.76 -6.06      
M8III 4.1 5.15e+04 1.64e+03 2180 2.25 -0.1 -6.93 -7.03      
M9III 4.1 1.79e+05 3.67e+03 1990 2.40 0.0 -8.38 -8.38      
R0III 4.6 8.91e+01 1.49e+01 4669 1.03 0.5 -0.62 -0.12      
R1III 4.7 1.05e+02 1.69e+01 4561 1.07 0.4 -0.70 -0.30      
R2III 4.8 1.36e+02 2.02e+01 4453 1.11 0.2 -0.78 -0.58      
R3III 5.0 1.62e+02 2.31e+01 4346 1.15 0.1 -0.87 -0.77      
R4III 5.1 1.95e+02 2.67e+01 4238 1.19 0.0 -0.97 -0.97      
R5III 5.2 2.59e+02 3.24e+01 4130 1.23 -0.2 -1.08 -1.28      
R6III 5.3 3.18e+02 3.78e+01 4023 1.27 -0.3 -1.20 -1.50      
R7III 5.4 3.94e+02 4.45e+01 3915 1.32 -0.4 -1.34 -1.74      
R8III 5.5 5.41e+02 5.51e+01 3808 1.36 -0.6 -1.48 -2.08      
R9III 5.6 6.89e+02 6.58e+01 3700 1.41 -0.7 -1.65 -2.35      
S0III 5.6 6.89e+02 6.58e+01 3700 1.41 -0.7 -1.65 -2.35      
S1III 5.3 9.29e+02 8.50e+01 3510 1.49 -0.7 -1.97 -2.67      
S2III 5.1 1.21e+03 1.08e+02 3320 1.58 -0.6 -2.36 -2.96      
S3III 4.8 1.84e+03 1.50e+02 3130 1.67 -0.6 -2.81 -3.41      
S4III 4.6 2.77e+03 2.09e+02 2940 1.77 -0.5 -3.36 -3.86      
S5III 4.3 5.07e+03 3.23e+02 2750 1.88 -0.5 -4.01 -4.51      
S6III 4.2 9.55e+03 5.12e+02 2560 2.00 -0.4 -4.80 -5.20      
S7III 4.2 2.10e+04 8.87e+02 2370 2.12 -0.3 -5.76 -6.06      
S8III 4.1 5.15e+04 1.64e+03 2180 2.25 -0.1 -6.93 -7.03      
S9III 4.1 1.79e+05 3.67e+03 1990 2.40 0.0 -8.38 -8.38      
N0III 5.6 6.89e+02 6.58e+01 3700 1.41 -0.7 -1.65 -2.35      
N1III 5.3 9.29e+02 8.50e+01 3510 1.49 -0.7 -1.97 -2.67      
N2III 5.1 1.21e+03 1.08e+02 3320 1.58 -0.6 -2.36 -2.96      
N3III 4.8 1.84e+03 1.50e+02 3130 1.67 -0.6 -2.81 -3.41      
N4III 4.6 2.77e+03 2.09e+02 2940 1.77 -0.5 -3.36 -3.86      
N5III 4.3 5.07e+03 3.23e+02 2750 1.88 -0.5 -4.01 -4.51      
N6III 4.2 9.55e+03 5.12e+02 2560 2.00 -0.4 -4.80 -5.20      
N7III 4.2 2.10e+04 8.87e+02 2370 2.12 -0.3 -5.76 -6.06      
N8III 4.1 5.15e+04 1.64e+03 2180 2.25 -0.1 -6.93 -7.03      
N9III 4.1 1.79e+05 3.67e+03 1990 2.40 0.0 -8.38 -8.38      
C0III 4.6 8.91e+01 1.49e+01 4669 1.03 0.5 -0.62 -0.12      
C1III 4.8 1.32e+02 2.06e+01 4371 1.14 0.3 -0.85 -0.55      
C2III 5.0 2.08e+02 2.99e+01 4073 1.25 0.1 -1.15 -1.05      
C3III 5.2 3.57e+02 4.55e+01 3776 1.37 -0.1 -1.53 -1.63      
C4III 5.4 6.80e+02 7.40e+01 3478 1.50 -0.3 -2.03 -2.33      
C5III 5.5 1.49e+03 1.31e+02 3180 1.65 -0.5 -2.68 -3.18      
C6III 5.2 3.95e+03 2.60e+02 2883 1.80 -0.7 -3.54 -4.24      
C7III 4.8 9.44e+03 4.99e+02 2585 1.98 -0.5 -4.69 -5.19      
C8III 4.4 2.97e+04 1.13e+03 2288 2.17 -0.2 -6.23 -6.43      
C9III 4.1 1.79e+05 3.67e+03 1990 2.40 0.0 -8.38 -8.38      

Class IV: Sub-Giants

Stellar
Type
Mass
Mstar/Msun
Luminosity
Lstar/Lsun
Radius
Rstar/Rsun
Temp
K
Color Index
B-V
Abs Mag
Mv
Bolo Corr
BC(Temp)
Bolo Mag
Mbol
Lifetime Rate of Rotation

Habital Zone

WC0IV 110.0 1.36e+06 1.60e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.0 -4.58 -10.58      
WC1IV 107.9 1.09e+06 1.57e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.9 -4.44 -10.34      
WC2IV 105.7 8.72e+05 1.54e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.8 -4.30 -10.10      
WC3IV 103.6 6.96e+05 1.52e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.7 -4.16 -9.86      
WC4IV 101.5 5.52e+05 1.50e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.6 -4.01 -9.61      
WC5IV 76.4 4.37e+05 1.49e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.5 -3.85 -9.35      
WC6IV 53.6 3.13e+05 1.42e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.3 -3.69 -8.99      
WC7IV 44.2 2.23e+05 1.35e+01 34600 -0.32 -5.1 -3.52 -8.62      
WC8IV 34.7 1.57e+05 1.30e+01 32400 -0.31 -4.9 -3.34 -8.24      
WC9IV 28.6 1.10e+05 1.25e+01 30200 -0.30 -4.7 -3.15 -7.85      
WN0IV 110.0 1.36e+06 1.60e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.0 -4.58 -10.58      
WN1IV 107.9 1.09e+06 1.57e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.9 -4.44 -10.34      
WN2IV 105.7 8.72e+05 1.54e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.8 -4.30 -10.10      
WN3IV 103.6 6.96e+05 1.52e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.7 -4.16 -9.86      
WN4IV 101.5 5.52e+05 1.50e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.6 -4.01 -9.61      
WN5IV 76.4 4.37e+05 1.49e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.5 -3.85 -9.35      
WN6IV 53.6 3.13e+05 1.42e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.3 -3.69 -8.99      
WN7IV 44.2 2.23e+05 1.35e+01 34600 -0.32 -5.1 -3.52 -8.62      
WN8IV 34.7 1.57e+05 1.30e+01 32400 -0.31 -4.9 -3.34 -8.24      
WN9IV 28.6 1.10e+05 1.25e+01 30200 -0.30 -4.7 -3.15 -7.85      
O0IV 110.0 1.36e+06 1.60e+01 50000 -0.35 -6.0 -4.58 -10.58      
O1IV 107.9 1.09e+06 1.57e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.9 -4.44 -10.34      
O2IV 105.7 8.72e+05 1.54e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.8 -4.30 -10.10      
O3IV 103.6 6.96e+05 1.52e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.7 -4.16 -9.86      
O4IV 101.5 5.52e+05 1.50e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.6 -4.01 -9.61      
O5IV 76.4 4.37e+05 1.49e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.5 -3.85 -9.35      
O6IV 53.6 3.13e+05 1.42e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.3 -3.69 -8.99      
O7IV 44.2 2.23e+05 1.35e+01 34600 -0.32 -5.1 -3.52 -8.62      
O8IV 34.7 1.57e+05 1.30e+01 32400 -0.31 -4.9 -3.34 -8.24      
O9IV 28.6 1.10e+05 1.25e+01 30200 -0.30 -4.7 -3.15 -7.85      
B0IV 22.9 7.57e+04 1.21e+01 28000 -0.29 -4.5 -2.95 -7.45      
B1IV 19.4 3.70e+04 9.63e+00 26190 -0.28 -3.9 -2.77 -6.67      
B2IV 15.8 1.96e+04 8.08e+00 24380 -0.27 -3.4 -2.58 -5.98      
B3IV 12.2 9.32e+03 6.51e+00 22570 -0.25 -2.8 -2.37 -5.17      
B4IV 10.6 4.79e+03 5.52e+00 20760 -0.24 -2.3 -2.15 -4.45      
B5IV 9.1 2.21e+03 4.50e+00 18950 -0.22 -1.7 -1.91 -3.61      
B6IV 8.2 1.20e+03 4.05e+00 17140 -0.20 -1.3 -1.65 -2.95      
B7IV 7.3 6.40e+02 3.70e+00 15330 -0.18 -0.9 -1.37 -2.27      
B8IV 6.4 3.34e+02 3.44e+00 13520 -0.15 -0.5 -1.06 -1.56      
B9IV 5.7 1.72e+02 3.29e+00 11710 -0.11 -0.1 -0.74 -0.84      
A0IV 5.1 8.88e+01 3.30e+00 9900 -0.06 0.3 -0.42 -0.12      
A1IV 4.8 7.11e+01 3.11e+00 9650 -0.06 0.5 -0.38 0.12      
A2IV 4.5 5.70e+01 2.93e+00 9400 -0.05 0.7 -0.34 0.36      
A3IV 4.3 4.17e+01 2.65e+00 9150 -0.04 1.0 -0.30 0.70      
A4IV 4.0 3.35e+01 2.51e+00 8900 0.00 1.2 -0.26 0.94      
A5IV 3.7 2.70e+01 2.38e+00 8650 0.05 1.4 -0.23 1.17      
A6IV 3.6 2.18e+01 2.27e+00 8400 0.09 1.6 -0.20 1.40      
A7IV 3.6 1.93e+01 2.27e+00 8150 0.14 1.7 -0.17 1.53      
A8IV 3.6 1.57e+01 2.18e+00 7900 0.19 1.9 -0.14 1.76      
A9IV 3.5 1.40e+01 2.20e+00 7650 0.24 2.0 -0.12 1.88      
F0IV 3.4 1.15e+01 2.12e+00 7400 0.30 2.2 -0.10 2.10      
F1IV 3.3 1.25e+01 2.30e+00 7260 0.33 2.1 -0.09 2.01      
F2IV 3.2 1.49e+01 2.62e+00 7120 0.36 1.9 -0.09 1.81      
F3IV 3.1 1.63e+01 2.85e+00 6980 0.39 1.8 -0.08 1.72      
F4IV 3.0 1.96e+01 3.25e+00 6840 0.42 1.6 -0.08 1.52      
F5IV 2.8 2.16e+01 3.55e+00 6700 0.46 1.5 -0.08 1.42      
F6IV 2.8 1.64e+01 3.23e+00 6560 0.49 1.8 -0.09 1.71      
F7IV 2.7 1.25e+01 2.95e+00 6420 0.52 2.1 -0.10 2.00      
F8IV 2.7 1.05e+01 2.83e+00 6280 0.56 2.3 -0.11 2.19      
F9IV 2.6 8.10e+00 2.59e+00 6140 0.60 2.6 -0.12 2.48      
G0IV 1.4 6.25e+00 2.38e+00 6000 0.63 2.9 -0.14 2.76      
G1IV 1.4 6.35e+00 2.50e+00 5890 0.66 2.9 -0.16 2.74      
G2IV 1.4 6.48e+00 2.62e+00 5780 0.69 2.9 -0.18 2.72      
G3IV 1.5 6.04e+00 2.63e+00 5670 0.72 3.0 -0.20 2.80      
G4IV 1.5 6.20e+00 2.76e+00 5560 0.75 3.0 -0.23 2.77      
G5IV 1.5 6.38e+00 2.92e+00 5450 0.79 3.0 -0.26 2.74      
G6IV 1.5 6.59e+00 3.09e+00 5340 0.82 3.0 -0.30 2.70      
G7IV 1.5 6.84e+00 3.28e+00 5230 0.85 3.0 -0.34 2.66      
G8IV 1.5 6.50e+00 3.34e+00 5120 0.89 3.1 -0.38 2.72      
G9IV 1.6 6.80e+00 3.57e+00 5010 0.92 3.1 -0.43 2.67      
K0IV 1.6 7.16e+00 3.83e+00 4900 0.96 3.1 -0.49 2.61      
K1IV 1.6 7.71e+00 4.21e+00 4760 1.00 3.1 -0.57 2.53      
K2IV 1.6 8.38e+00 4.66e+00 4620 1.05 3.1 -0.66 2.44      
K3IV 1.7 9.22e+00 5.19e+00 4480 1.10 3.1 -0.76 2.34      
K4IV 1.7 1.03e+01 5.84e+00 4340 1.15 3.1 -0.88 2.22      
K5IV 1.8 1.06e+01 6.33e+00 4200 1.20 3.2 -1.01 2.19      
K6IV 1.8 1.22e+01 7.26e+00 4060 1.26 3.2 -1.16 2.04      
K7IV 1.9 1.42e+01 8.43e+00 3920 1.31 3.2 -1.33 1.87      
K8IV 1.9 1.70e+01 9.90e+00 3780 1.37 3.2 -1.52 1.68      
K9IV 2.0 2.07e+01 1.18e+01 3640 1.43 3.2 -1.74 1.46      
M0IV 3.1 2.60e+01 1.43e+01 3500 1.49 3.2 -1.99 1.21      
M1IV 2.9 3.55e+01 1.84e+01 3333 1.57 3.2 -2.33 0.87      
M2IV 2.7 5.09e+01 2.44e+01 3167 1.65 3.2 -2.72 0.48      
M3IV 2.6 7.76e+01 3.36e+01 3000 1.74 3.2 -3.18 0.02      
M4IV 2.4 1.27e+02 4.83e+01 2833 1.83 3.2 -3.71 -0.51      
M5IV 2.3 2.07e+02 6.94e+01 2667 1.93 3.3 -4.34 -1.04      
M6IV 2.2 4.10e+02 1.11e+02 2500 2.03 3.3 -5.08 -1.78      
M7IV 2.1 9.26e+02 1.92e+02 2333 2.14 3.3 -5.97 -2.67      
M8IV 2.1 2.44e+03 3.61e+02 2167 2.26 3.3 -7.02 -3.72      
M9IV 2.1 7.91e+03 7.64e+02 2000 2.39 3.3 -8.30 -5.00      
R0IV 2.8 6.20e+00 2.76e+00 5560 0.75 3.0 -0.23 2.77      
R1IV 2.8 6.61e+00 3.11e+00 5331 0.82 3.0 -0.30 2.70      
R2IV 2.8 7.17e+00 3.53e+00 5102 0.89 3.0 -0.39 2.61      
R3IV 2.9 7.26e+00 3.90e+00 4873 0.97 3.1 -0.50 2.60      
R4IV 2.9 8.25e+00 4.57e+00 4644 1.04 3.1 -0.64 2.46      
R5IV 2.9 9.67e+00 5.47e+00 4416 1.12 3.1 -0.81 2.29      
R6IV 3.0 1.17e+01 6.71e+00 4187 1.21 3.1 -1.02 2.08      
R7IV 3.0 1.36e+01 8.08e+00 3958 1.30 3.2 -1.28 1.92      
R8IV 3.0 1.82e+01 1.05e+01 3729 1.39 3.2 -1.60 1.60      
R9IV 3.1 2.60e+01 1.43e+01 3500 1.49 3.2 -1.99 1.21      
S0IV 3.1 2.60e+01 1.43e+01 3500 1.49 3.2 -1.99 1.21      
S1IV 2.9 3.55e+01 1.84e+01 3333 1.57 3.2 -2.33 0.87      
S2IV 2.7 5.09e+01 2.44e+01 3167 1.65 3.2 -2.72 0.48      
S3IV 2.6 7.76e+01 3.36e+01 3000 1.74 3.2 -3.18 0.02      
S4IV 2.4 1.27e+02 4.83e+01 2833 1.83 3.2 -3.71 -0.51      
S5IV 2.3 2.07e+02 6.94e+01 2667 1.93 3.3 -4.34 -1.04      
S6IV 2.2 4.10e+02 1.11e+02 2500 2.03 3.3 -5.08 -1.78      
S7IV 2.1 9.26e+02 1.92e+02 2333 2.14 3.3 -5.97 -2.67      
S8IV 2.1 2.44e+03 3.61e+02 2167 2.26 3.3 -7.02 -3.72      
S9IV 2.1 7.91e+03 7.64e+02 2000 2.39 3.3 -8.30 -5.00      
N0IV 3.1 2.60e+01 1.43e+01 3500 1.49 3.2 -1.99 1.21      
N1IV 2.9 3.55e+01 1.84e+01 3333 1.57 3.2 -2.33 0.87      
N2IV 2.7 5.09e+01 2.44e+01 3167 1.65 3.2 -2.72 0.48      
N3IV 2.6 7.76e+01 3.36e+01 3000 1.74 3.2 -3.18 0.02      
N4IV 2.4 1.27e+02 4.83e+01 2833 1.83 3.2 -3.71 -0.51      
N5IV 2.3 2.07e+02 6.94e+01 2667 1.93 3.3 -4.34 -1.04      
N6IV 2.2 4.10e+02 1.11e+02 2500 2.03 3.3 -5.08 -1.78      
N7IV 2.1 9.26e+02 1.92e+02 2333 2.14 3.3 -5.97 -2.67      
N8IV 2.1 2.44e+03 3.61e+02 2167 2.26 3.3 -7.02 -3.72      
N9IV 2.1 7.91e+03 7.64e+02 2000 2.39 3.3 -8.30 -5.00      
C0IV 2.8 6.20e+00 2.76e+00 5560 0.75 3.0 -0.23 2.77      
C1IV 2.8 7.00e+00 3.41e+00 5164 0.87 3.0 -0.36 2.64      
C2IV 2.9 7.67e+00 4.18e+00 4769 1.00 3.1 -0.56 2.54      
C3IV 2.9 1.00e+01 5.68e+00 4373 1.14 3.1 -0.85 2.25      
C4IV 3.0 1.46e+01 8.28e+00 3978 1.29 3.1 -1.26 1.84      
C5IV 3.0 2.27e+01 1.28e+01 3582 1.46 3.2 -1.84 1.36      
C6IV 2.8 4.86e+01 2.36e+01 3187 1.64 3.2 -2.67 0.53      
C7IV 2.5 1.46e+02 5.33e+01 2791 1.86 3.2 -3.86 -0.66      
C8IV 2.3 6.70e+02 1.55e+02 2396 2.10 3.3 -5.61 -2.31      
C9IV 2.1 7.91e+03 7.64e+02 2000 2.39 3.3 -8.30 -5.00      

Class V: Dwarfs (Main Sequence Stars)

Stellar
Type
Mass
Mstar/Msun
Luminosity
Lstar/Lsun
Radius
Rstar/Rsun
Temp
K
Color Index
B-V
Abs Mag
Mv
Bolo Corr
BC(Temp)
Bolo Mag
Mbol
Lifetime Rate of Rotation

Habital Zone

WC0V 100.0 1.24e+06 1.53e+01 50000 -0.35 -5.9 -4.58 -10.48      
WC1V 97.5 9.94e+05 1.50e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.8 -4.44 -10.24      
WC2V 95.0 7.95e+05 1.47e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.7 -4.30 -10.00      
WC3V 92.5 6.34e+05 1.45e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.6 -4.16 -9.76      
WC4V 90.0 5.04e+05 1.44e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.5 -4.01 -9.51      
WC5V 60.0 3.98e+05 1.42e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.4 -3.85 -9.25      
WC6V 37.0 2.60e+05 1.29e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.1 -3.69 -8.79      
WC7V 30.0 1.54e+05 1.13e+01 34600 -0.32 -4.7 -3.52 -8.22      
WC8V 23.0 9.91e+04 1.03e+01 32400 -0.31 -4.4 -3.34 -7.74      
WC9V 20.0 5.76e+04 9.04e+00 30200 -0.30 -4.0 -3.15 -7.15      
WN0V 100.0 1.24e+06 1.53e+01 50000 -0.35 -5.9 -4.58 -10.48      
WN1V 97.5 9.94e+05 1.50e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.8 -4.44 -10.24      
WN2V 95.0 7.95e+05 1.47e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.7 -4.30 -10.00      
WN3V 92.5 6.34e+05 1.45e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.6 -4.16 -9.76      
WN4V 90.0 5.04e+05 1.44e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.5 -4.01 -9.51      
WN5V 60.0 3.98e+05 1.42e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.4 -3.85 -9.25      
WN6V 37.0 2.60e+05 1.29e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.1 -3.69 -8.79      
WN7V 30.0 1.54e+05 1.13e+01 34600 -0.32 -4.7 -3.52 -8.22      
WN8V 23.0 9.91e+04 1.03e+01 32400 -0.31 -4.4 -3.34 -7.74      
WN9V 20.0 5.76e+04 9.04e+00 30200 -0.30 -4.0 -3.15 -7.15      
O0V 100.0 1.24e+06 1.53e+01 50000 -0.35 -5.9 -4.58 -10.48      
O1V 97.5 9.94e+05 1.50e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.8 -4.44 -10.24      
O2V 95.0 7.95e+05 1.47e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.7 -4.30 -10.00      
O3V 92.5 6.34e+05 1.45e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.6 -4.16 -9.76      
O4V 90.0 5.04e+05 1.44e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.5 -4.01 -9.51      
O5V 60.0 3.98e+05 1.42e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.4 -3.85 -9.25      
O6V 37.0 2.60e+05 1.29e+01 36800 -0.32 -5.1 -3.69 -8.79      
O7V 30.0 1.54e+05 1.13e+01 34600 -0.32 -4.7 -3.52 -8.22      
O8V 23.0 9.91e+04 1.03e+01 32400 -0.31 -4.4 -3.34 -7.74      
O9V 20.0 5.76e+04 9.04e+00 30200 -0.30 -4.0 -3.15 -7.15      
B0V 17.5 3.62e+04 8.34e+00 28000 -0.29 -3.7 -2.95 -6.65      
B1V 14.2 1.94e+04 6.97e+00 26190 -0.28 -3.2 -2.77 -5.97      
B2V 10.9 9.36e+03 5.59e+00 24380 -0.27 -2.6 -2.58 -5.18      
B3V 7.6 4.89e+03 4.71e+00 22570 -0.25 -2.1 -2.37 -4.47      
B4V 6.7 2.29e+03 3.82e+00 20760 -0.24 -1.5 -2.15 -3.65      
B5V 5.9 1.16e+03 3.26e+00 18950 -0.22 -1.0 -1.91 -2.91      
B6V 5.2 6.92e+02 3.07e+00 17140 -0.20 -0.7 -1.65 -2.35      
B7V 4.5 4.04e+02 2.94e+00 15330 -0.18 -0.4 -1.37 -1.77      
B8V 3.8 2.11e+02 2.73e+00 13520 -0.15 0.0 -1.06 -1.06      
B9V 3.4 1.19e+02 2.73e+00 11710 -0.11 0.3 -0.74 -0.44      
A0V 2.9 6.74e+01 2.88e+00 9900 -0.06 0.6 -0.42 0.18      
A1V 2.7 4.92e+01 2.59e+00 9650 -0.06 0.9 -0.38 0.52      
A2V 2.5 3.94e+01 2.44e+00 9400 -0.05 1.1 -0.34 0.76      
A3V 2.4 2.89e+01 2.20e+00 9150 -0.04 1.4 -0.30 1.10      
A4V 2.1 2.32e+01 2.09e+00 8900 0.00 1.6 -0.26 1.34      
A5V 1.9 1.70e+01 1.89e+00 8650 0.05 1.9 -0.23 1.67      
A6V 1.8 1.51e+01 1.89e+00 8400 0.09 2.0 -0.20 1.80      
A7V 1.8 1.22e+01 1.81e+00 8150 0.14 2.2 -0.17 2.03      
A8V 1.8 1.09e+01 1.81e+00 7900 0.19 2.3 -0.14 2.16      
A9V 1.7 8.85e+00 1.75e+00 7650 0.24 2.5 -0.12 2.38      
F0V 1.6 7.94e+00 1.77e+00 7400 0.30 2.6 -0.10 2.50      
F1V 1.6 6.56e+00 1.67e+00 7260 0.33 2.8 -0.09 2.71      
F2V 1.5 5.95e+00 1.65e+00 7120 0.36 2.9 -0.09 2.81      
F3V 1.5 4.94e+00 1.57e+00 6980 0.39 3.1 -0.08 3.02      
F4V 1.4 4.50e+00 1.56e+00 6840 0.42 3.2 -0.08 3.12      
F5V 1.4 3.75e+00 1.48e+00 6700 0.46 3.4 -0.08 3.32      
F6V 1.3 3.13e+00 1.41e+00 6560 0.49 3.6 -0.09 3.51      
F7V 1.3 2.62e+00 1.35e+00 6420 0.52 3.8 -0.10 3.70      
F8V 1.2 2.41e+00 1.35e+00 6280 0.56 3.9 -0.11 3.79      
F9V 1.1 2.03e+00 1.30e+00 6140 0.60 4.1 -0.12 3.98      
G0V 1.1 1.72e+00 1.25e+00 6000 0.63 4.3 -0.14 4.16      
G1V 1.0 1.46e+00 1.19e+00 5890 0.66 4.5 -0.16 4.34      
G2V 1.0 1.23e+00 1.14e+00 5780 0.69 4.7 -0.18 4.52      
G3V 1.0 1.15e+00 1.15e+00 5670 0.72 4.8 -0.20 4.60      
G4V 0.9 9.82e-01 1.10e+00 5560 0.75 5.0 -0.23 4.77      
G5V 0.9 8.41e-01 1.06e+00 5450 0.79 5.2 -0.26 4.94      
G6V 0.9 7.92e-01 1.07e+00 5340 0.82 5.3 -0.30 5.00      
G7V 0.9 6.84e-01 1.04e+00 5230 0.85 5.5 -0.34 5.16      
G8V 0.8 6.50e-01 1.06e+00 5120 0.89 5.6 -0.38 5.22      
G9V 0.8 5.66e-01 1.03e+00 5010 0.92 5.8 -0.43 5.37      
K0V 0.8 5.43e-01 1.05e+00 4900 0.96 5.9 -0.49 5.41      
K1V 0.8 4.43e-01 1.01e+00 4760 1.00 6.2 -0.57 5.63      
K2V 0.7 4.01e-01 1.02e+00 4620 1.05 6.4 -0.66 5.74      
K3V 0.7 3.35e-01 9.90e-01 4480 1.10 6.7 -0.76 5.94      
K4V 0.7 3.10e-01 1.02e+00 4340 1.15 6.9 -0.88 6.02      
K5V 0.7 2.66e-01 1.00e+00 4200 1.20 7.2 -1.01 6.19      
K6V 0.6 2.11e-01 9.57e-01 4060 1.26 7.6 -1.16 6.44      
K7V 0.6 1.87e-01 9.67e-01 3920 1.31 7.9 -1.33 6.57      
K8V 0.6 1.55e-01 9.46e-01 3780 1.37 8.3 -1.52 6.78      
K9V 0.5 1.44e-01 9.82e-01 3640 1.43 8.6 -1.74 6.86      
M0V 0.5 1.25e-01 9.90e-01 3500 1.49 9.0 -1.99 7.01      
M1V 0.5 6.18e-02 7.68e-01 3333 1.57 10.1 -2.33 7.77      
M2V 0.4 3.21e-02 6.14e-01 3167 1.65 11.2 -2.72 8.48      
M3V 0.3 1.78e-02 5.09e-01 3000 1.74 12.3 -3.18 9.12      
M4V 0.3 1.06e-02 4.40e-01 2833 1.83 13.4 -3.71 9.69      
M5V 0.2 6.24e-03 3.81e-01 2667 1.93 14.6 -4.34 10.26      
M6V 0.2 4.50e-03 3.68e-01 2500 2.03 15.7 -5.08 10.62      
M7V 0.1 3.69e-03 3.83e-01 2333 2.14 16.8 -5.97 10.83      
M8V 0.1 3.53e-03 4.34e-01 2167 2.26 17.9 -7.02 10.88      
M9V 0.1 4.15e-03 5.53e-01 2000 2.39 19.0 -8.30 10.70      
R0V 0.9 9.82e-01 1.10e+00 5560 0.75 5.0 -0.23 4.77      
R1V 0.9 7.94e-01 1.08e+00 5331 0.82 5.3 -0.30 5.00      
R2V 0.8 6.54e-01 1.07e+00 5102 0.89 5.6 -0.39 5.21      
R3V 0.8 5.50e-01 1.07e+00 4873 0.97 5.9 -0.50 5.40      
R4V 0.8 5.21e-01 1.15e+00 4644 1.04 6.1 -0.64 5.46      
R5V 0.7 4.63e-01 1.20e+00 4416 1.12 6.4 -0.81 5.59      
R6V 0.7 4.26e-01 1.28e+00 4187 1.21 6.7 -1.02 5.68      
R7V 0.6 2.59e-01 1.12e+00 3958 1.30 7.5 -1.28 6.22      
R8V 0.6 1.82e-01 1.05e+00 3729 1.39 8.2 -1.60 6.60      
R9V 0.5 1.25e-01 9.90e-01 3500 1.49 9.0 -1.99 7.01      
S0V 0.5 1.25e-01 9.90e-01 3500 1.49 9.0 -1.99 7.01      
S1V 0.5 6.18e-02 7.68e-01 3333 1.57 10.1 -2.33 7.77      
S2V 0.4 3.21e-02 6.14e-01 3167 1.65 11.2 -2.72 8.48      
S3V 0.3 1.78e-02 5.09e-01 3000 1.74 12.3 -3.18 9.12      
S4V 0.3 1.06e-02 4.40e-01 2833 1.83 13.4 -3.71 9.69      
S5V 0.2 6.24e-03 3.81e-01 2667 1.93 14.6 -4.34 10.26      
S6V 0.2 4.50e-03 3.68e-01 2500 2.03 15.7 -5.08 10.62      
S7V 0.1 3.69e-03 3.83e-01 2333 2.14 16.8 -5.97 10.83      
S8V 0.1 3.53e-03 4.34e-01 2167 2.26 17.9 -7.02 10.88      
S9V 0.1 4.15e-03 5.53e-01 2000 2.39 19.0 -8.30 10.70      
N0V 0.5 1.25e-01 9.90e-01 3500 1.49 9.0 -1.99 7.01      
N1V 0.5 6.18e-02 7.68e-01 3333 1.57 10.1 -2.33 7.77      
N2V 0.4 3.21e-02 6.14e-01 3167 1.65 11.2 -2.72 8.48      
N3V 0.3 1.78e-02 5.09e-01 3000 1.74 12.3 -3.18 9.12      
N4V 0.3 1.06e-02 4.40e-01 2833 1.83 13.4 -3.71 9.69      
N5V 0.2 6.24e-03 3.81e-01 2667 1.93 14.6 -4.34 10.26      
N6V 0.2 4.50e-03 3.68e-01 2500 2.03 15.7 -5.08 10.62      
N7V 0.1 3.69e-03 3.83e-01 2333 2.14 16.8 -5.97 10.83      
N8V 0.1 3.53e-03 4.34e-01 2167 2.26 17.9 -7.02 10.88      
N9V 0.1 4.15e-03 5.53e-01 2000 2.39 19.0 -8.30 10.70      
C0V 0.9 9.82e-01 1.10e+00 5560 0.75 5.0 -0.23 4.77      
C1V 0.8 6.39e-01 1.03e+00 5164 0.87 5.6 -0.36 5.24      
C2V 0.8 2.78e-01 7.97e-01 4769 1.00 6.7 -0.56 6.14      
C3V 0.7 1.20e-01 6.23e-01 4373 1.14 7.9 -0.85 7.05      
C4V 0.6 6.36e-02 5.47e-01 3978 1.29 9.0 -1.26 7.74      
C5V 0.5 5.20e-03 1.93e-01 3582 1.46 12.3 -1.84 10.46      
C6V 0.4 1.34e-03 1.24e-01 3187 1.64 14.6 -2.67 11.93      
C7V 0.3 5.30e-04 1.01e-01 2791 1.86 16.8 -3.86 12.94      
C8V 0.2 9.68e-04 1.86e-01 2396 2.10 17.9 -5.61 12.29      
C9V 0.1 4.15e-03 5.53e-01 2000 2.39 19.0 -8.30 10.70      

Class VI: Sub Main Sequence Dwarfs

.
Stellar
Type
Mass
Mstar/Msun
Luminosity
Lstar/Lsun
Radius
Rstar/Rsun
Temp
K
Color Index
B-V
Abs Mag
Mv
Bolo Corr
BC(Temp)
Bolo Mag
Mbol
Lifetime Rate of Rotation

Habital Zone

WC0VI 60.0 9.40e+05 1.33e+01 50000 -0.35 -5.6 -4.58 -10.18      
WC1VI 37.0 7.54e+05 1.31e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.5 -4.44 -9.94      
WC2VI 30.0 6.03e+05 1.28e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.4 -4.30 -9.70      
WC3VI 23.0 4.81e+05 1.26e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.3 -4.16 -9.46      
WC4VI 20.0 3.82e+05 1.25e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.2 -4.01 -9.21      
WC5VI 17.5 3.02e+05 1.24e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.1 -3.85 -8.95      
WC6VI 14.2 1.80e+05 1.08e+01 36800 -0.32 -4.7 -3.69 -8.39      
WC7VI 10.9 1.07e+05 9.36e+00 34600 -0.32 -4.3 -3.52 -7.82      
WC8VI 7.6 5.70e+04 7.81e+00 32400 -0.31 -3.8 -3.34 -7.14      
WC9VI 6.7 3.31e+04 6.85e+00 30200 -0.30 -3.4 -3.15 -6.55      
WN0VI 60.0 9.40e+05 1.33e+01 50000 -0.35 -5.6 -4.58 -10.18      
WN1VI 37.0 7.54e+05 1.31e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.5 -4.44 -9.94      
WN2VI 30.0 6.03e+05 1.28e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.4 -4.30 -9.70      
WN3VI 23.0 4.81e+05 1.26e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.3 -4.16 -9.46      
WN4VI 20.0 3.82e+05 1.25e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.2 -4.01 -9.21      
WN5VI 17.5 3.02e+05 1.24e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.1 -3.85 -8.95      
WN6VI 14.2 1.80e+05 1.08e+01 36800 -0.32 -4.7 -3.69 -8.39      
WN7VI 10.9 1.07e+05 9.36e+00 34600 -0.32 -4.3 -3.52 -7.82      
WN8VI 7.6 5.70e+04 7.81e+00 32400 -0.31 -3.8 -3.34 -7.14      
WN9VI 6.7 3.31e+04 6.85e+00 30200 -0.30 -3.4 -3.15 -6.55      
O0VI 60.0 9.40e+05 1.33e+01 50000 -0.35 -5.6 -4.58 -10.18      
O1VI 37.0 7.54e+05 1.31e+01 47800 -0.35 -5.5 -4.44 -9.94      
O2VI 30.0 6.03e+05 1.28e+01 45600 -0.35 -5.4 -4.30 -9.70      
O3VI 23.0 4.81e+05 1.26e+01 43400 -0.34 -5.3 -4.16 -9.46      
O4VI 20.0 3.82e+05 1.25e+01 41200 -0.34 -5.2 -4.01 -9.21      
O5VI 17.5 3.02e+05 1.24e+01 39000 -0.33 -5.1 -3.85 -8.95      
O6VI 14.2 1.80e+05 1.08e+01 36800 -0.32 -4.7 -3.69 -8.39      
O7VI 10.9 1.07e+05 9.36e+00 34600 -0.32 -4.3 -3.52 -7.82      
O8VI 7.6 5.70e+04 7.81e+00 32400 -0.31 -3.8 -3.34 -7.14      
O9VI 6.7 3.31e+04 6.85e+00 30200 -0.30 -3.4 -3.15 -6.55      
B0VI 5.9 1.90e+04 6.04e+00 28000 -0.29 -3.0 -2.95 -5.95      
B1VI 5.2 1.02e+04 5.05e+00 26190 -0.28 -2.5 -2.77 -5.27      
B2VI 4.5 5.39e+03 4.24e+00 24380 -0.27 -2.0 -2.58 -4.58      
B3VI 3.8 2.57e+03 3.41e+00 22570 -0.25 -1.4 -2.37 -3.77      
B4VI 3.4 1.32e+03 2.89e+00 20760 -0.24 -0.9 -2.15 -3.05      
B5VI 2.9 6.67e+02 2.47e+00 18950 -0.22 -0.4 -1.91 -2.31      
B6VI 2.7 3.63e+02 2.23e+00 17140 -0.20 0.0 -1.65 -1.65      
B7VI 2.5 1.93e+02 2.03e+00 15330 -0.18 0.4 -1.37 -0.97      
B8VI 2.4 1.01e+02 1.89e+00 13520 -0.15 0.8 -1.06 -0.26      
B9VI 2.1 5.20e+01 1.81e+00 11710 -0.11 1.2 -0.74 0.46      
A0VI 1.9 2.68e+01 1.81e+00 9900 -0.06 1.6 -0.42 1.18      
A1VI 1.8 1.96e+01 1.63e+00 9650 -0.06 1.9 -0.38 1.52      
A2VI 1.8 1.57e+01 1.54e+00 9400 -0.05 2.1 -0.34 1.76      
A3VI 1.8 1.15e+01 1.39e+00 9150 -0.04 2.4 -0.30 2.10      
A4VI 1.7 9.23e+00 1.32e+00 8900 0.00 2.6 -0.26 2.34      
A5VI 1.6 6.78e+00 1.20e+00 8650 0.05 2.9 -0.23 2.67      
A6VI 1.6 5.47e+00 1.14e+00 8400 0.09 3.1 -0.20 2.90      
A7VI 1.5 4.43e+00 1.09e+00 8150 0.14 3.3 -0.17 3.13      
A8VI 1.5 3.59e+00 1.04e+00 7900 0.19 3.5 -0.14 3.36      
A9VI 1.4 2.93e+00 1.00e+00 7650 0.24 3.7 -0.12 3.58      
F0VI 1.4 2.40e+00 9.71e-01 7400 0.30 3.9 -0.10 3.80      
F1VI 1.3 1.98e+00 9.17e-01 7260 0.33 4.1 -0.09 4.01      
F2VI 1.3 1.64e+00 8.67e-01 7120 0.36 4.3 -0.09 4.21      
F3VI 1.2 1.49e+00 8.60e-01 6980 0.39 4.4 -0.08 4.32      
F4VI 1.1 1.24e+00 8.17e-01 6840 0.42 4.6 -0.08 4.52      
F5VI 1.1 1.03e+00 7.77e-01 6700 0.46 4.8 -0.08 4.72      
F6VI 1.0 8.62e-01 7.41e-01 6560 0.49 5.0 -0.09 4.91      
F7VI 1.0 7.91e-01 7.41e-01 6420 0.52 5.1 -0.10 5.00      
F8VI 1.0 6.65e-01 7.10e-01 6280 0.56 5.3 -0.11 5.19      
F9VI 0.9 6.14e-01 7.14e-01 6140 0.60 5.4 -0.12 5.28      
G0VI 0.9 5.20e-01 6.88e-01 6000 0.63 5.6 -0.14 5.46      
G1VI 0.9 4.40e-01 6.56e-01 5890 0.66 5.8 -0.16 5.64      
G2VI 0.9 3.73e-01 6.28e-01 5780 0.69 6.0 -0.18 5.82      
G3VI 0.8 3.48e-01 6.30e-01 5670 0.72 6.1 -0.20 5.90      
G4VI 0.8 2.97e-01 6.05e-01 5560 0.75 6.3 -0.23 6.07      
G5VI 0.8 2.54e-01 5.83e-01 5450 0.79 6.5 -0.26 6.24      
G6VI 0.8 2.18e-01 5.62e-01 5340 0.82 6.7 -0.30 6.40      
G7VI 0.7 2.06e-01 5.70e-01 5230 0.85 6.8 -0.34 6.46      
G8VI 0.7 1.79e-01 5.54e-01 5120 0.89 7.0 -0.38 6.62      
G9VI 0.7 1.71e-01 5.66e-01 5010 0.92 7.1 -0.43 6.67      
K0VI 0.7 1.50e-01 5.53e-01 4900 0.96 7.3 -0.49 6.81      
K1VI 0.6 1.34e-01 5.55e-01 4760 1.00 7.5 -0.57 6.93      
K2VI 0.6 1.21e-01 5.60e-01 4620 1.05 7.7 -0.66 7.04      
K3VI 0.6 1.01e-01 5.44e-01 4480 1.10 8.0 -0.76 7.24      
K4VI 0.5 9.36e-02 5.58e-01 4340 1.15 8.2 -0.88 7.32      
K5VI 0.5 8.80e-02 5.78e-01 4200 1.20 8.4 -1.01 7.39      
K6VI 0.5 7.67e-02 5.77e-01 4060 1.26 8.7 -1.16 7.54      
K7VI 0.4 6.80e-02 5.83e-01 3920 1.31 9.0 -1.33 7.67      
K8VI 0.3 5.62e-02 5.70e-01 3780 1.37 9.4 -1.52 7.88      
K9VI 0.3 4.33e-02 5.40e-01 3640 1.43 9.9 -1.74 8.16      
M0VI 0.2 3.76e-02 5.44e-01 3500 1.49 10.3 -1.99 8.31      
M1VI 0.2 1.86e-02 4.22e-01 3333 1.57 11.4 -2.33 9.07      
M2VI 0.2 8.85e-03 3.22e-01 3167 1.65 12.6 -2.72 9.88      
M3VI 0.2 4.90e-03 2.67e-01 3000 1.74 13.7 -3.18 10.52      
M4VI 0.1 2.66e-03 2.21e-01 2833 1.83 14.9 -3.71 11.19      
M5VI 0.1 1.72e-03 2.00e-01 2667 1.93 16.0 -4.34 11.66      
M6VI 0.1 1.63e-03 2.22e-01 2500 2.03 16.8 -5.08 11.72      
M7VI 0.1 1.94e-03 2.78e-01 2333 2.14 17.5 -5.97 11.53      
M8VI 0.1 2.44e-03 3.61e-01 2167 2.26 18.3 -7.02 11.28      
M9VI 0.1 4.15e-03 5.53e-01 2000 2.39 19.0 -8.30 10.70      
R0VI 0.8 2.97e-01 6.05e-01 5560 0.75 6.3 -0.23 6.07      
R1VI 0.7 2.19e-01 5.65e-01 5331 0.82 6.7 -0.30 6.40      
R2VI 0.7 1.80e-01 5.60e-01 5102 0.89 7.0 -0.39 6.61      
R3VI 0.6 1.52e-01 5.63e-01 4873 0.97 7.3 -0.50 6.80      
R4VI 0.6 1.19e-01 5.50e-01 4644 1.04 7.7 -0.64 7.06      
R5VI 0.5 8.81e-02 5.23e-01 4416 1.12 8.2 -0.81 7.39      
R6VI 0.4 6.76e-02 5.09e-01 4187 1.21 8.7 -1.02 7.68      
R7VI 0.4 4.50e-02 4.65e-01 3958 1.30 9.4 -1.28 8.12      
R8VI 0.3 3.80e-02 4.82e-01 3729 1.39 9.9 -1.60 8.30      
R9VI 0.2 3.76e-02 5.44e-01 3500 1.49 10.3 -1.99 8.31      
S0VI 0.2 3.76e-02 5.44e-01 3500 1.49 10.3 -1.99 8.31      
S1VI 0.2 1.86e-02 4.22e-01 3333 1.57 11.4 -2.33 9.07      
S2VI 0.2 8.85e-03 3.22e-01 3167 1.65 12.6 -2.72 9.88      
S3VI 0.2 4.90e-03 2.67e-01 3000 1.74 13.7 -3.18 10.52      
S4VI 0.1 2.66e-03 2.21e-01 2833 1.83 14.9 -3.71 11.19      
S5VI 0.1 1.72e-03 2.00e-01 2667 1.93 16.0 -4.34 11.66      
S6VI 0.1 1.63e-03 2.22e-01 2500 2.03 16.8 -5.08 11.72      
S7VI 0.1 1.94e-03 2.78e-01 2333 2.14 17.5 -5.97 11.53      
S8VI 0.1 2.44e-03 3.61e-01 2167 2.26 18.3 -7.02 11.28      
S9VI 0.1 4.15e-03 5.53e-01 2000 2.39 19.0 -8.30 10.70      
N0VI 0.2 3.76e-02 5.44e-01 3500 1.49 10.3 -1.99 8.31      
N1VI 0.2 1.86e-02 4.22e-01 3333 1.57 11.4 -2.33 9.07      
N2VI 0.2 8.85e-03 3.22e-01 3167 1.65 12.6 -2.72 9.88      
N3VI 0.2 4.90e-03 2.67e-01 3000 1.74 13.7 -3.18 10.52      
N4VI 0.1 2.66e-03 2.21e-01 2833 1.83 14.9 -3.71 11.19      
N5VI 0.1 1.72e-03 2.00e-01 2667 1.93 16.0 -4.34 11.66      
N6VI 0.1 1.63e-03 2.22e-01 2500 2.03 16.8 -5.08 11.72      
N7VI 0.1 1.94e-03 2.78e-01 2333 2.14 17.5 -5.97 11.53      
N8VI 0.1 2.44e-03 3.61e-01 2167 2.26 18.3 -7.02 11.28      
N9VI 0.1 4.15e-03 5.53e-01 2000 2.39 19.0 -8.30 10.70      
C0VI 0.8 2.97e-01 6.05e-01 5560 0.75 6.3 -0.23 6.07      
C1VI 0.7 1.76e-01 5.40e-01 5164 0.87 7.0 -0.36 6.64      
C2VI 0.7 1.33e-01 5.51e-01 4769 1.00 7.5 -0.56 6.94      
C3VI 0.6 9.12e-02 5.42e-01 4373 1.14 8.2 -0.85 7.35      
C4VI 0.5 6.36e-02 5.47e-01 3978 1.29 9.0 -1.26 7.74      
C5VI 0.4 3.28e-02 4.85e-01 3582 1.46 10.3 -1.84 8.46      
C6VI 0.3 3.07e-03 1.87e-01 3187 1.64 13.7 -2.67 11.03      
C7VI 0.3 5.30e-04 1.01e-01 2791 1.86 16.8 -3.86 12.94      
C8VI 0.2 6.70e-04 1.55e-01 2396 2.10 18.3 -5.61 12.69      
C9VI 0.1 4.15e-03 5.53e-01 2000 2.39 19.0 -8.30 10.70      

Brown dwarfs

TypeSurface
Temp.
Radius
(Sun=1)
Absolute
Magnitude
(Visual)
Luminosity
(bolometric)
(Sun=1)
Habitable Zone
(AU)
Habitable Zone
(km)
M82 600K0.11+18.50.000450.0213 100 000
M92 500K0.10+19.30.000320.0182 700 000
L0 2 400K 0.098+19.7 0.00030 0.017 2 500 000
L1
L2 2 100K 0.095+20.4 0.00015 0.012 1 800 000
L3
L4
L5 1 650K 0.089+22 0.0000600.00781 200 000
L6
L7
L8
L9
T01 400K0.08+230.000028 0.0052780 000
T1
T2
T3
T4
T51 200K0.06+240.000015 0.0039580 000
T6
T7
T8 750K0.06+260.00000260.0016240 000

Class VII: White Dwarfs

Spectral Classification of White Dwarfs
Type Characteristics
dA Only Balmer lines: no HeI or metals present
dB HeI lines: no H or metals present
dC Continuous spectrum, few or no lines visible
dO HeII strong: HeI or H present
dZ Metal lines only: no H or He lines
dQ Carbon features, either atomic or molecular in any part of the spectrum

Stellar
Type
Mass
Mstar/Msun
Luminosity
Lstar/Lsun
Radius
Rstar/Rsun
Temp
K
Color Index
B-V
Abs Mag
Mv
Bolo Corr
BC(Temp)
Bolo Mag
Mbol
Lifetime Rate of Rotation

Habital Zone

DA0 1.1 6.91e+00 9.02e-03 100000 -0.37 10.2 -7.55 2.65      
DA1 0.9 2.65e-01 6.96e-03 50400 -0.35 10.8 -4.61 6.19      
DA2 0.8 2.55e-02 8.64e-03 25200 -0.27 11.4 -2.67 8.73      
DA3 0.7 6.02e-03 9.44e-03 16800 -0.20 11.9 -1.60 10.30      
DA4 0.6 1.82e-03 9.22e-03 12600 -0.13 12.5 -0.90 11.60      
DA5 0.5 6.93e-04 8.90e-03 10080 -0.07 13.1 -0.45 12.65      
DA6 0.4 3.15e-04 8.64e-03 8400 0.09 13.7 -0.20 13.50      
DA7 0.3 1.80e-04 8.89e-03 7200 0.34 14.2 -0.09 14.11      
DA8 0.2 1.05e-04 8.87e-03 6300 0.55 14.8 -0.10 14.70      
DA9 0.1 6.73e-05 8.98e-03 5600 0.74 15.4 -0.22 15.18      
DB0 1.1 6.91e+00 9.02e-03 100000 -0.37 10.2 -7.55 2.65      
DB1 0.9 2.65e-01 6.96e-03 50400 -0.35 10.8 -4.61 6.19      
DB2 0.8 2.55e-02 8.64e-03 25200 -0.27 11.4 -2.67 8.73      
DB3 0.7 6.02e-03 9.44e-03 16800 -0.20 11.9 -1.60 10.30      
DB4 0.6 1.82e-03 9.22e-03 12600 -0.13 12.5 -0.90 11.60      
DB5 0.5 6.93e-04 8.90e-03 10080 -0.07 13.1 -0.45 12.65      
DB6 0.4 3.15e-04 8.64e-03 8400 0.09 13.7 -0.20 13.50      
DB7 0.3 1.80e-04 8.89e-03 7200 0.34 14.2 -0.09 14.11      
DB8 0.2 1.05e-04 8.87e-03 6300 0.55 14.8 -0.10 14.70      
DB9 0.1 6.73e-05 8.98e-03 5600 0.74 15.4 -0.22 15.18      
DC0 1.1 6.91e+00 9.02e-03 100000 -0.37 10.2 -7.55 2.65      
DC1 0.9 2.65e-01 6.96e-03 50400 -0.35 10.8 -4.61 6.19      
DC2 0.8 2.55e-02 8.64e-03 25200 -0.27 11.4 -2.67 8.73      
DC3 0.7 6.02e-03 9.44e-03 16800 -0.20 11.9 -1.60 10.30      
DC4 0.6 1.82e-03 9.22e-03 12600 -0.13 12.5 -0.90 11.60      
DC5 0.5 6.93e-04 8.90e-03 10080 -0.07 13.1 -0.45 12.65      
DC6 0.4 3.15e-04 8.64e-03 8400 0.09 13.7 -0.20 13.50      
DC7 0.3 1.80e-04 8.89e-03 7200 0.34 14.2 -0.09 14.11      
DC8 0.2 1.05e-04 8.87e-03 6300 0.55 14.8 -0.10 14.70      
DC9 0.1 6.73e-05 8.98e-03 5600 0.74 15.4 -0.22 15.18      
DO0 1.1 6.91e+00 9.02e-03 100000 -0.37 10.2 -7.55 2.65      
DO1 0.9 2.65e-01 6.96e-03 50400 -0.35 10.8 -4.61 6.19      
DO2 0.8 2.55e-02 8.64e-03 25200 -0.27 11.4 -2.67 8.73      
DO3 0.7 6.02e-03 9.44e-03 16800 -0.20 11.9 -1.60 10.30      
DO4 0.6 1.82e-03 9.22e-03 12600 -0.13 12.5 -0.90 11.60      
DO5 0.5 6.93e-04 8.90e-03 10080 -0.07 13.1 -0.45 12.65      
DO6 0.4 3.15e-04 8.64e-03 8400 0.09 13.7 -0.20 13.50      
DO7 0.3 1.80e-04 8.89e-03 7200 0.34 14.2 -0.09 14.11      
DO8 0.2 1.05e-04 8.87e-03 6300 0.55 14.8 -0.10 14.70      
DO9 0.1 6.73e-05 8.98e-03 5600 0.74 15.4 -0.22 15.18      
DZ0 1.1 6.91e+00 9.02e-03 100000 -0.37 10.2 -7.55 2.65      
DZ1 0.9 2.65e-01 6.96e-03 50400 -0.35 10.8 -4.61 6.19      
DZ2 0.8 2.55e-02 8.64e-03 25200 -0.27 11.4 -2.67 8.73      
DZ3 0.7 6.02e-03 9.44e-03 16800 -0.20 11.9 -1.60 10.30      
DZ4 0.6 1.82e-03 9.22e-03 12600 -0.13 12.5 -0.90 11.60      
DZ5 0.5 6.93e-04 8.90e-03 10080 -0.07 13.1 -0.45 12.65      
DZ6 0.4 3.15e-04 8.64e-03 8400 0.09 13.7 -0.20 13.50      
DZ7 0.3 1.80e-04 8.89e-03 7200 0.34 14.2 -0.09 14.11      
DZ8 0.2 1.05e-04 8.87e-03 6300 0.55 14.8 -0.10 14.70      
DZ9 0.1 6.73e-05 8.98e-03 5600 0.74 15.4 -0.22 15.18      
DQ0 1.1 6.91e+00 9.02e-03 100000 -0.37 10.2 -7.55 2.65      
DQ1 0.9 2.65e-01 6.96e-03 50400 -0.35 10.8 -4.61 6.19      
DQ2 0.8 2.55e-02 8.64e-03 25200 -0.27 11.4 -2.67 8.73      
DQ3 0.7 6.02e-03 9.44e-03 16800 -0.20 11.9 -1.60 10.30      
DQ4 0.6 1.82e-03 9.22e-03 12600 -0.13 12.5 -0.90 11.60      
DQ5 0.5 6.93e-04 8.90e-03 10080 -0.07 13.1 -0.45 12.65      
DQ6 0.4 3.15e-04 8.64e-03 8400 0.09 13.7 -0.20 13.50      
DQ7 0.3 1.80e-04 8.89e-03 7200 0.34 14.2 -0.09 14.11      
DQ8 0.2 1.05e-04 8.87e-03 6300 0.55 14.8 -0.10 14.70      
DQ9 0.1 6.73e-05 8.98e-03 5600 0.74 15.4 -0.22 15.18      

Additional Information

Yerkes Six Luminosity Classifications

Class

Description

Ia

Most luminous supergiants

Ib

Less luminous supergiants

II

Luminous giants

III

Normal giants

IV

Subgiants

V

Main sequence stars (dwarfs)

Stellar Mass vs. Stellar Lifetime
MASS LIFETIME (in solar years)
60 400,000
10 30,000,000
3 600,000,000
1 10,000,000,000
0.3 200,000,000,000
0.1 3,000,000,000,000

The Morgan-Keenan Luminosity Classes

I supergiants
Ia-0 hypergiants or extremely luminous supergiants
Ia luminous supergiants
Iab supergiants
Ib less luminous supergiants
II bright giants
III giants
IV subgiants
V dwarfs (main sequence stars)
Va extremely luminous dwarfs
Vab luminous dwarfs
Vb normal dwarfs
Vz LMG dwarfs
VI sub main sequence dwarfs
VII white dwarfs (represented with prescript sd or esd)
Marginal Symbols for Luminosity Class
Symbol Example Explanation
G2 I-II BETWEEN: The star is between supergiant and bright giant.
+ O9.5 Ia+ Hypergiant
/ M2 IV/V OR: The star is a subgiant or a dwarf

Some Spectral Peculiarity Codes

Code

Meaning

comp

Composite spectrum; two spectral types are blended, indicating that the star is an unresolved binary.

e

Emission lines are present (usually hydrogen).

m

Abnormally strong "metals" (elements other than hydrogen and helium) for a star of a given spectral type; usually applied to A stars.

n

Broad ("nebulous") absorption lines due to fast rotation.

nn

Very broad lines due to very fast rotation.

neb

A nebula's spectrum is mixed with the star's.

p

Unspecified peculiarity, except when used with type A, where it denotes abnormally strong lines of "metals" (related to Am stars).

s

Very narrow ("sharp") lines.

sh

Shell star (B to F main sequence star with emission lines from a shell of gas).

var

Varying spectral type.

wl

Weak lines (suggesting an ancient, "metal"-poor star)

HR Diagram HR Diagram

Modern Format HR Diagram

Modern HR Diagram

Variable Areas in the HR Diagram

Modern HR Diagram